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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers Chapter 10: Thinking and Language 1. A prototype is a: A) Mental grouping ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • From Myers,
  • Psychology 8e
  • Worth Publishers

2
Chapter 10 Thinking and Language
Tell me about it
Speak their Language
Mull it Over
Concentrate
Think before you speak
3
Concentrate
500
400
300
200
100
4
Mull it Over
500
400
300
200
100
5
Tell me about it
500
400
300
200
100
6
Speak their language
500
400
300
200
100
7
Think before you speak
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. A prototype is a
  • A) Mental grouping of similar objects, events, or
    people.
  • B) step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
  • C) best example of a particular category.
  • D) rule-of-thumb strategy for solving problems
    efficiently.

9
2. When we use the word automobile to refer to
a category of transport vehicles, we are using
this word as a(n)
  • A) phoneme.
  • B) concept.
  • C) heuristic.
  • D) algorithm.

10
3. Logical, methodical step-by-step procedures
for solving problems are called
  • A) heuristics.
  • B) semantics.
  • C) prototypes.
  • D) algorithms.

11
4. As he attempted to spell the word receive,
Tim reminded himself i before e except after c.
This illustrates the use of
  • A) a prototype.
  • B) trial and error.
  • C) a heuristic.
  • D) an algorithm.

12
5. When given a candle, tacks, and a box of
matches and asked to mount the candle on the
wall, people often fail to think of using the
matchbox as a candleholder. This best
illustrates
  • A) functional fixedness.
  • B) overconfidence.
  • C) confirmation bias.
  • D) the availability heuristic.

13
6. The human tendency toward intellectual
arrogance is best demonstrated by
  • A) overconfidence.
  • B) belief perseverance.
  • C) the framing effect.
  • D) functional fixedness.

14
7. People told that a chemical is projected to
kill 10 out of every 10 million people feel more
frightened than if told the fatality risk is
0.000001. This best illustrates the importance
of
  • A) belief perseverance.
  • B) framing.
  • C) functional fixedness.
  • D) confirmation bias.

15
8. We often consider illogical conclusions that
happen to agree with our personal opinions to be
logically valid. This is known as
  • A) the availability heuristic.
  • B) linguistic relativity.
  • C) belief bias.
  • D) framing.

16
9. Which of the following illustrates belief
perseverance?
  • A) Your belief remains intact even in the face of
    contrary evidence.
  • B) You refuse to listen to arguments counter to
    your beliefs.
  • C) You tend to search for information that
    supports your beliefs.
  • D) Your beliefs tend to distort logical reasoning.

17
10. Experts in the field prefer to use heuristics
instead of algorithms because heuristics
  • A) guarantee solutions to all problems.
  • B) prevent mental sets.
  • C) often save time.
  • D) prevent fixation.

18
11. The spontaneous utterance of a variety of
sounds by infants is called
  • A) universal grammar.
  • B) telegraphic speech.
  • C) semantics.
  • D) babbling.

19
12. Two-year-old Donnas sentences Dad come,
Mom laugh, and Truck goneare examples of
  • A) babbling.
  • B) artificial intelligence.
  • C) telegraphic speech.
  • D) universal grammar.

20
13. During the earliest stage of speech
development, infants
  • A) speak in single words that may be barely
    recognizable.
  • B) begin to imitate adult syntax.
  • C) make speech sounds only if their hearing is
    unimpaired.
  • D) make some speech sounds that do not occur in
    their parents native language.

21
14. In order to combine words into grammatically
sensible sentences, one needs to adhere to proper
rules of
  • A) semantics.
  • B) syntax.
  • C) nomenclature.
  • D) phonics.

22
15. When 3-year-old Rosalie complained, Boris
hitted me with a ball, she was illustrating the
tendency of young children to
  • A) use telegraphic speech patterns.
  • B) imitate the incorrect speech patterns of
    others.
  • C) receive inadequate reinforcement for correct
    language usage.
  • D) use certain grammatical rules in sentence
    construction.

23
16. Worfs linguistic determinism hypothesis
emphasizes that
  • A) infancy is a critical period for language
    development.
  • B) all languages share a similar grammar.
  • C) our linguistic proficiencies influence our
    social status.
  • D) words shape the way people think.

24
17. Many psychologists are skeptical of claims
that chimps can acquire language because the
chimps have not shown the ability to
  • A) use symbols meaningfully.
  • B) acquire speech.
  • C) acquire even a limited vocabulary.
  • D) use syntax in communicating.

25
18. The problem-solving abilities of
forest-dwelling chimpanzees are best illustrated
by their naturally developed use of
  • A) sign language.
  • B) hand tools.
  • C) heuristics.
  • D) artificial intelligence.

26
19. Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the
chimpanzee Washoe to communicate by means of
  • A) pictures.
  • B) Morse code.
  • C) sign language.
  • D) a simplified typewriter.

27
20. At some point during the babbling stage,
infants begin to
  • A) imitate adult grammar.
  • B) make speech sounds only if their hearing is
    unimpaired.
  • C) speak in simple words that may be barely
    recognizable.
  • D) lose their ability to discriminate sounds that
    they never hear.

28
21. We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is
a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a
blue jay more closely resembles our ____ of a
bird.
  • A) heuristic
  • B) prototype
  • C) algorithm
  • D) phoneme

29
22. Failing to see that an article of clothing
can be inflated as a life preserver is an example
of
  • A) belief bias.
  • B) the availability heuristic.
  • C) the representativeness heuristic.
  • D) functional fixedness.

30
23. In relation to ground beef, consumers respond
more positively to an ad describing it as 75
lean than to one referring to it as 25 fat.
This is an example of
  • A) the framing effect.
  • B) confirmation bias.
  • C) mental set.
  • D) overconfidence.

31
24. Phonemes are the basic units of _____ in
language.
  • A) sound
  • B) meaning
  • C) grammar
  • D) semantics

32
25. Regarding the relationship between thinking
and language, which of the following most
accurately reflects the position taken in the
text?
  • A) Language determines everything about our
    thinking.
  • B) Language determines the way we think.
  • C) Thinking without language is not possible.
  • D) Thinking affects our language, which then
    affects our thought.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. A prototype is a
  • A) Mental grouping of similar objects, events, or
    people.
  • B) step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
  • C) best example of a particular category.
  • D) rule-of-thumb strategy for solving problems
    efficiently.

396
36
2. When we use the word automobile to refer to
a category of transport vehicles, we are using
this word as a(n)
  • A) phoneme.
  • B) concept.
  • C) heuristic.
  • D) algorithm.

396
37
3. Logical, methodical step-by-step procedures
for solving problems are called
  • A) heuristics.
  • B) semantics.
  • C) prototypes.
  • D) algorithms.

397
38
4. As he attempted to spell the word receive,
Tim reminded himself i before e except after c.
This illustrates the use of
  • A) a prototype.
  • B) trial and error.
  • C) a heuristic.
  • D) an algorithm.

398
39
5. When given a candle, tacks, and a box of
matches and asked to mount the candle on the
wall, people often fail to think of using the
matchbox as a candleholder. This best
illustrates
  • A) functional fixedness.
  • B) overconfidence.
  • C) confirmation bias.
  • D) the availability heuristic.

400
40
6. The human tendency toward intellectual
arrogance is best demonstrated by
  • A) overconfidence.
  • B) belief perseverance.
  • C) the framing effect.
  • D) functional fixedness.

403
41
7. People told that a chemical is projected to
kill 10 out of every 10 million people feel more
frightened than if told the fatality risk is
0.000001. This best illustrates the importance
of
  • A) belief perseverance.
  • B) framing.
  • C) functional fixedness.
  • D) confirmation bias.

402
42
8. We often consider illogical conclusions that
happen to agree with our personal opinions to be
logically valid. This is known as
  • A) the availability heuristic.
  • B) linguistic relativity.
  • C) belief bias.
  • D) framing.

407
43
9. Which of the following illustrates belief
perseverance?
  • A) Your belief remains intact even in the face of
    contrary evidence.
  • B) You refuse to listen to arguments counter to
    your beliefs.
  • C) You tend to search for information that
    supports your beliefs.
  • D) Your beliefs tend to distort logical reasoning.

407
44
10. Experts in the field prefer to use heuristics
instead of algorithms because heuristics
  • A) guarantee solutions to all problems.
  • B) prevent mental sets.
  • C) often save time.
  • D) prevent fixation.

398
45
11. The spontaneous utterance of a variety of
sounds by infants is called
  • A) universal grammar.
  • B) telegraphic speech.
  • C) semantics.
  • D) babbling.

412
46
12. Two-year-old Donnas sentences Dad come,
Mom laugh, and Truck goneare examples of
  • A) babbling.
  • B) artificial intelligence.
  • C) telegraphic speech.
  • D) universal grammar.

413
47
13. During the earliest stage of speech
development, infants
  • A) speak in single words that may be barely
    recognizable.
  • B) begin to imitate adult syntax.
  • C) make speech sounds only if their hearing is
    unimpaired.
  • D) make some speech sounds that do not occur in
    their parents native language.

410
48
14. In order to combine words into grammatically
sensible sentences, one needs to adhere to proper
rules of
  • A) semantics.
  • B) syntax.
  • C) nomenclature.
  • D) phonics.

411
49
15. When 3-year-old Rosalie complained, Boris
hitted me with a ball, she was illustrating the
tendency of young children to
  • A) use telegraphic speech patterns.
  • B) imitate the incorrect speech patterns of
    others.
  • C) receive inadequate reinforcement for correct
    language usage.
  • D) use certain grammatical rules in sentence
    construction.

411
50
16. Worfs linguistic determinism hypothesis
emphasizes that
  • A) infancy is a critical period for language
    development.
  • B) all languages share a similar grammar.
  • C) our linguistic proficiencies influence our
    social status.
  • D) words shape the way people think.

418
51
17. Many psychologists are skeptical of claims
that chimps can acquire language because the
chimps have not shown the ability to
  • A) use symbols meaningfully.
  • B) acquire speech.
  • C) acquire even a limited vocabulary.
  • D) use syntax in communicating.

426
52
18. The problem-solving abilities of
forest-dwelling chimpanzees are best illustrated
by their naturally developed use of
  • A) sign language.
  • B) hand tools.
  • C) heuristics.
  • D) artificial intelligence.

423
53
19. Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the
chimpanzee Washoe to communicate by means of
  • A) pictures.
  • B) Morse code.
  • C) sign language.
  • D) a simplified typewriter.

425
54
20. At some point during the babbling stage,
infants begin to
  • A) imitate adult grammar.
  • B) make speech sounds only if their hearing is
    unimpaired.
  • C) speak in simple words that may be barely
    recognizable.
  • D) lose their ability to discriminate sounds that
    they never hear.

410
55
21. We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is
a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a
blue jay more closely resembles our ____ of a
bird.
  • A) heuristic
  • B) prototype
  • C) algorithm
  • D) phoneme

396
56
22. Failing to see that an article of clothing
can be inflated as a life preserver is an example
of
  • A) belief bias.
  • B) the availability heuristic.
  • C) the representativeness heuristic.
  • D) functional fixedness.

400
57
23. In relation to ground beef, consumers respond
more positively to an ad describing it as 75
lean than to one referring to it as 25 fat.
This is an example of
  • A) the framing effect.
  • B) confirmation bias.
  • C) mental set.
  • D) overconfidence.

406
58
24. Phonemes are the basic units of _____ in
language.
  • A) sound
  • B) meaning
  • C) grammar
  • D) semantics

410
59
25. Regarding the relationship between thinking
and language, which of the following most
accurately reflects the position taken in the
text?
  • A) Language determines everything about our
    thinking.
  • B) Language determines the way we think.
  • C) Thinking without language is not possible.
  • D) Thinking affects our language, which then
    affects our thought.

422
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by
  • David Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers, 2006

61
Answers
1. C
2. B
3. D
4. C
5. A
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. C
11. D
12. C
13. D
14. B
15. D
16. D
17. D
18. B
19. C
20. D
21. B
22. D
23. A
24. A
25. D
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