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Welcome to the International Right of Way Association

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Welcome to the International Right of Way Association s Course 209 Negotiating Effectively with a Diverse Clientele * 209-PT Revision 2 03.24.09 INT – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to the International Right of Way Association


1
Welcome to the International Right of Way
AssociationsCourse 209Negotiating Effectively
with a Diverse Clientele
209-PT Revision 2 03.24.09 INT
2
  • Introduction

3
Objectives (1)At the conclusion of the two days,
you will be able to...
  • Learn practical skills to overcome cultural
    roadblocks
  • Understand better major negotiation styles
  • Learn approaches to minimize intercultural
    conflicts

4
Objectives (2) At the conclusion of the two
days, you will be able to...
  • Understand better intercultural negotiation
    strategies and principles
  • Have improved communication skills
  • Have a greater awareness of biases, which create
    negotiation roadblocks
  • Increase your self-confidence to achieve
    win-win agreements

5
Housekeeping
6
ScheduleDay One (1)
  • 800 - 830 Introductions, Etc.
  • 830 - 1200 A Foundation for Intercultural
    Negotiation
  • 100 - 445 Intercultural Communication
  • 445 - 500 Recap Day One

7
ScheduleDay Two (2)
  • 800 - 815 Recap Day One
  • Introduce Day Two
  • 815 - 1200 Building Cross-Cultural
    Relationships
  • 100 - 345 Intercultural Competence
  • 345 - 400 Summary and Review
  • 400 - 500 Exam

8
A smaller world creates a bigger agenda for
business. There are more cultures to understand,
more social responsibilities to master, more time
pressures to juggle, and more relationships to
rethink. Rosabeth Moss KanterTranscending
Business Boundaries
9
Principles (1)
  • Basic human needs are universal
  • Generally, values and beliefs are non negotiable
  • Cultural conditioning of face is a critical
    factor to resolve
  • Negotiations simultaneously involve both,
    substantive variables and relationship
    vulnerabilities

10
Principles (2)
  • Different negotiation styles and multiple
    bargaining strategies
  • Relational and goal-seeking cultural differences
  • Ones experience of cultural difference is
    either ethno-centric or ethno-relative
  • Intercultural communication competence and
    negotiation skills can be improved

11
  • Introductions

Name Employer Position and principal work
function Main negotiation strengths Cultural
background Anything else?
12
A Negotiation Process
13
Attitudinal FoundationEach party must approach
thenegotiation with a willingness to
  • Trust the other party
  • Share information
  • Ask specific questions - including cultural
    protocol questions
  • Open, positive attitude

14
Behavioral Foundation
  • Required repertoire of abilities to ...
  • Separate the people from the problem
  • Focus on interests rather than on positions
  • Avoid making premature judgments
  • Keep the acts of alternative creation separate
    from their evaluation
  • Judge possible agreements on an objective set of
    criteria or standards

15
Informational Foundation
  • Each party ...
  • Is familiar with his/her BATNA (best
    alternative to a negotiated agreement)
  • Understands his/her personal interests
  • Knows what is really important
  • Understands the relative importance of the other
    partys interests

16
Substance v. Relationship (1)
17
Substance v. Relationship (2)
Substantive interests include ? liabilities ?
conditions ? dates ? numbers ? terms ? prices
Relationship interests include ? attitude of
acceptance or rejection ? degree of mutual
understanding ? degree of reliability and trust ?
balance of emotion and reason ? relative emphasis
on persuasion or coercion ? ease of
communication
18
Face
  • Building face is essential
  • Saving face is essential
  • Causing a loss of face must be avoided
  • Giving face helps

19
Cross-Cultural Variables
  • Cultural conditioning
  • Use of a go-between
  • Trust
  • Problem solving
  • Cultural protocol
  • Decision-making

20
Tips (1)
  • Preparation
  • Getting beyond self to the other person
  • Beginning small
  • Accepting silence
  • Being curious
  • Avoiding anger and threats

21
Tips (2)
  • Exploring alternative
  • Planning activities
  • Starting the negotiation session with
    pleasantries
  • Showing personal interest in the other person
  • Cultivating trust

22
Negotiation Styles
23
Negotiation Styles
24
Approaches to Conflict (1)
25
Approaches to Conflict (2)
? What are the strengths of your conflict
management style? ? What are its weaknesses? ?
What do you do when the approach doesnt seem to
be working? ? Do you have a fall back style? ?
Any other comments?
26
Approaches to Conflict (3)
Energizer - enthusiastic - prefers interaction -
likes recognition
Pragmatic - direct - in control - results oriented
Balancer - supportive - cooperative - stable
Analytical - has own standards - expects
quality, accuracy and logic
27
Pragmatic/Energizer
  • PRAGMATIC
  • Refrain from win/losechallenges.
  • Use reciprocity to calm fear of being taken
    advantage of.
  • ENERGIZER
  • Refrain from avoiding or rejecting.
  • Give faceor favorable recognition to calm a
    fear of disapproval.

28
Balancer/Analytic
  • BALANCER
  • Establish a sound relationship at the beginning.
  • Promote teamwork and collaboration to calm a fear
    of competition and loss of security.
  • ANALYTIC
  • Refrain from blunt and highly personal questions.
  • Provide appropriate and sincere praise to calm a
    fear of criticism.

29
The Orange (1)
30
The Orange (2)
- What helped the negotiation? -What hindered the
negotiation? - Were you aware of your
counterparts approach? - Was your counterpart
aware of your approach? - What was the outcome
of the negotiation?
31
Assessing...
Is this person more outgoing and talkative or
is he/she more reserved and a listener?
Does the person talk in matter of fact or
is this person more concerned with making an
impression? Does the person listen more
empathetically for understanding or does the
person listen to make critical judgments?
32
Pragmatic Style (1)
Refrain from win/lose challenges Be
precise in presenting facts Avoid telling the
other person what to do Refer to what has
worked previously Highlight the bottom line
and results Never attack character Be
indicative (i.e., go from the facts to the
principles)
33
Pragmatic Style (2)
  • Emphasize freedom from restraints
  • Acknowledge the other persons power and
    authority
  • Calm the other persons fear of being taken
    advantage of
  • Document what is said
  • Follow through and show support
  • Negotiate workable procedures

34
Energetic Style (1)
  • Refrain from avoiding or rejecting theother
    person
  • Focus on the situation, as a whole
  • Project into the future look for opportunities
  • Do not deny the other persons acceptanceand
    friendliness
  • Avoid negativism and arguing
  • Demonstrate friendliness

35
Energetic Style (2)
  • Emphasize prestige
  • Quickly include the other person with others
  • Calm the other persons fear of social
    disapproval with recognition
  • Share new trends
  • Show priority and support

36
Balancer Style (1)
  • Establish a sound relationship as quickly as
    possible
  • Refrain from overloading or confusing the
    other person
  • Show interest in what the other person is
    communicating
  • Avoid competition
  • Identify the other persons values and adjust
    to them
  • Avoid sudden, unplanned risky challenges
  • Emphasize collaboration

37
Balancer Style (2)
  • Demonstrate sincerity
  • Be predictable
  • Appeal to the other persons feelings
  • Calm the other persons natural fear of loss of
    security
  • Be ready to compromise
  • Follow through
  • Emphasize safety, direction and improvement

38
Analytic Style (1)
  • Refrain asking blunt, highly personal questions
  • Never criticize
  • Avoid giving incomplete, inaccurate information
  • Emphasize autonomy, professionalism, freedom for
    personalization
  • Use logic
  • Calm the other persons fear of criticism
  • with expressions of genuine praise

39
Analytic Style (2)
  • Look for causes and effects
  • Be patient
  • Be logical and acknowledge the other persons
    contribution
  • Analyze the relationships among the issues
  • Analyze the pros and cons of the options
  • Negotiate realistic effective trade-offsand
    planned options

40
We say of some people that they are transparent
to us. However, it is important as regards this
observation that one human being can be a
complete enigma to another. We learn this when
we come into a strange country with entirely
strange traditions and what is more, even given
a mastery of the countrys language, we do not
understand the people. We cannot find our feet
with them. Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation
of Cultures
41
Culture
Culture is a set of mental formulae for survival
and success that a particular group of
people has developed. These formulae are stored
as a set of instructions in the unconscious
mind and are sometimes heard as
conversations with oneself in the conscious
mind. George F. Simon, Carmen Vázquez, and
Phillip R. Harris Transcultural Leadership
42
Huh?
A team that has scored 100 runs and lost three
wickets has a score of "a hundred for three",
written 100-3. A team that is dismissed having
scored 300 runs is said to have a score of "three
hundred all out" or "all out for three hundred
rather than "three hundred for ten.The score
for the innings is then simply written 300.
However, if a team declares their innings
closed, the number of wickets is included in
their score for the innings, for example 300-8d.
43
High-context/Low-context
44
Communication
High-context Shared experiences Indirect and
implicit words only part of the message Many
Asiansand Middle Easterners
Low-context Direct and explicit words convey
most of the message Many Australians, Canadians,
Americans and other western societies
45
Contrasts
46
Classification
High-context Cultures Asian
African-American/Caribbean Hispanic/Latin
American Native-American/First
Nation Middle Easterners
Southern Europeans Euro-North American
Females Euro-North American
Males Northern Europeans Low-context
Cultures
47
Non Verbal
48
Seven Dimensionsof Culture
Sense of self and space Language and
communication Time orientation Relationships Value
s Attitudes Thinking
49
Comparison
World Formal bows,
hugs Implicit and indirect Flexible
consciousness Extended family Group
conformity Holistic and inductive problem-solvin
g
  • North American
  • Informal handshake
  • Explicit and direct
  • Linear consciousness
  • Nuclear family
  • Self-sufficiency
  • Sequential and
  • deductive problem-
  • solving

50
Exercise No. 7
Colors Blue, Red Flowers Daisy,
Rose Fruits Apple, Orange Tools Wrench,
Hammer Furniture Table, Chair
51
Style of Communication
Directness Explicitness Personal Problem-oriented
Informality
52
Linear Worldview (1)
The individual is separate from all that is
outside self The individual is the master of
his/her fate Organizations are hierarchical and
often in conflict Dependency is viewed as a
negative The past, present and future are
separate from each other
53
Linear Worldview (2)
Time is important The past is unlikely to
repeat itself Emphasis is on the present and,
even more important, on the future There is a
separation between the living and ones ancestors
and spirits
54
Circular Worldview (1)
All parts of reality are closely related
There is a unity of all things, which fosters
harmony The group is the basic unit of
survival The focus is to maintain norms,
attitudes and values
55
Circular Worldview (2)
  • All things are connected in a circle of life
  • An interrelationship and high reliance on the
    group
  • Decision-making is based on consensus
  • Saving face and minimizing embarrassment are
    highly regarded

56
  • Recap Day One

57
  • Recap Day One
  • Introduce Day Two

58
If ones kibun, (Korean for mood )or inner
feelings is good, then one functions smoothly and
with ease, and feels like a million dollars. If
ones kibun is upset or bad, then things may come
to a complete halt, and one feels
depressed. Simons, Vazquez and
Harris Transcultural Leadership
59
L.E.N.A. (1)
  • Listening
  • Expressing
  • Negotiating
  • Accommodating

60
L.E.N.A. (2)
61
S.T.O.P.
Step back from the situation Think the
scenario through Organize thoughts and
strategy Proceed with a fresh perspective
62
The 5Rs
  • Recognize
  • Retrace
  • Reclaim
  • Reframe
  • Resurface

63
Negotiation is one of the single most important
international business skills. It is seeking to
leverage culture and shape it into competitive
advantage. T. Brake and D. and T.
Walker Doing Business
Internationally
64
Intercultural Competence (1)
Intercultural competence is the capacity to
recognize the primary cultural orientations of
the negotiating parties and to be conscious of
the potential impact of these differences on
negotiating relationships. Intercultural
competence means going beyond the explicit
factors of a culture and working with the
implicit orientations that shape and motivate
behavior.
65
Intercultural Competence (2)
66
Negotiation Strategies (1)
Avoidance A situation in which neither the
outcome nor the relationship matters. This is a
lose-lose. When one choose this strategy, it is
likely that both the relationship and the outcome
will be lost. Collaborative A situation in
which both the outcome and relationship are
important. This is a win-win. When one chooses
this strategy, it is likely that both the
relationship and the outcome will succeed.
67
Negotiation Strategies (2)
Accommodation A situation in which the outcome
is not important but the relationship is. This is
a lose-win. When one chooses this strategy, it is
likely that the outcome will be lost but the
relationship will be won. Competition A
situation in which the outcome is important but
the relationship is not. This is a win-lose.
When one chooses this strategy, it is likely that
the outcome will be won but the relationship will
be lost.
68
Negotiation Strategies (3)
Compromise A situation inwhich both the outcome
and the relationship are somewhat important.
69
80-20
Assume that at least 80 of what you react to in
others is cultural and that 20 or less is
personality. Remembering this in times of
friction may help you reduce negative feelings,
blame and other destructive behaviors that may
accompany cross-cultural conflict.
70
Paradigm
71
Objectives (1)Now, you will be able to...
  • ? Utilize practical skills to overcome cultural
    roadblocks
  • ? Understand better major negotiation styles
  • ? Minimize intercultural conflicts

72
Objectives (2)Now, you will be able to...
  • ? Understand better interculturalnegotiation
    strategies and principles
  • ? Have improved communication skills
  • ? Have a greater awareness of biases, which
    create negotiation roadblocks
  • ? Have an increased self-confidence to achieve
    win-win agreements

73
  • Thank you

209-PT Revision 2 03.24.09 INT
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