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Major Findings on Family Involvement Programs and Family Process


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Title: Major Findings on Family Involvement Programs and Family Process

Major Findings on Family Involvement Programs and
Family Process
Learning Outcomes Parent/Community Involvement
and Student Achievement
  • Students are able to
  • Apply appropriate change strategy to promote and
    sustain parent/community involvement
  • Compare and contrast the synthesis done by
    Henderson Berla and that done by Henderson
  • Utilize research synthesis done by Herderson
    Berla (1994) and Henderson Mapp (2002) to
    relate the relationship between parent/community
    involvement and student achievement
  • Utilize key findings and recommendations provided
    by Henderson and Mapp (2002)

Three Strategies of Planned Change (Robert Chin)
  • Empirical-rational change (The rational behind
    the utilization of research findings)
  • Power-coercive change
  • Normative-reeducation change
  • Empirical-rational change
  • The linkages between researchers and
  • It is related to knowledge production and
    utilization (KPU)
  • The aim is to bridge the gap between theory and
  • Research, development, and diffusion (R, D, and

  • Power-coercive strategies
  • Willingness to use sanctions in order to obtain
    compliance from adopters
  • It requires that individuals comply with the
    wishes fo those who are in positions superior to
  • In empirical-rational and power coercive
    strategies, organizations are made to change
  • Both empirical-rational and power-coercive
    strategies believe that best ideas are best
    developed outside of the organization and the
    organization is the target of external forces for

  • A normative-reeducative strategy
  • Norms of the organizations interaction-influence
    system (culture) can be deliberately shifted to
    more productive norms by collaborative action of
    people who populate the organization
  • The shift from a close climate to a open climate
    (Andrew Halpin)
  • Moving from System 1 management style to System 4
    (Rensis Likert)

School and Family Partnerships in Primary
Schools Wee Beng Neo Ph. D. (Petaling District,
  • Perception on the need for parent involvement
  • Headmaster Teacher
  • Parenting 95 96.4
  • Communication 74.1 71.5
  • Volunteer 15 14.8
  • Home involvement 95 91.3
  • School governance 5 4.3
  • Collaboration with 95 88
  • community

School Practices in Parent Involvement
  • Type 4 predominates high in both high-achieving
    and low achieving schools
  • Type 2 is also another popular practice in
    high-achieving and low achieving schools
  • Parent involvement in Type 5 is minimal in both
    high-achieving and low achieving schools
  • Schools reported that their schools collaborated
    with community
  • Type 3 also not a popular practice in most
  • Type 1 was the least popular practice. The low
    achieving schools reported organizing more
    parenting activities than their colleagues in the
    high achieving schools (Your observation?)
  • Type 4 involvement was the most popular practice

  • A New Generation of Evidence The Family is
    Critical to Student Achievement
  • Edited by Anne. T. Henderson Nancy Berla 1994

Major Themes Emerged
  1. The family makes critical contributions to
    student achievement, from earliest childhood to
    high school
  2. When parents are involved at school, not just at
    home, children do better in school and they stay
    in school longer
  3. When parents are involved at school, their
    children go to better schools
  4. Children do best when their parents are enabled
    to play four key roles in their childrens
    learning teachers, supporters, advocates, and
  5. The more the relationship between family and
    school approaches a comprehensive, well-planned
    partnership, the higher the student achievement
  6. Families, schools, and community organizations
    all contribute to student achievement, the best
    results come when all three work together

What the Studies Cover
  • Programs and Interventions
  • Early childhood//preschool
  • Cochran et al.
  • Cummins
  • Elementary school
  • Epstein
  • Toomey
  • Cormer
  • High school
  • Nettles

  • Family processes
  • Dornbusch et al
  • Ziegler
  • Clark
  • Eagle

Effects of student achievement if teachers
practice parental involvement (Epstein)
  • Performed multiple-regression analysis to
    determine the relative effects of
  • Student and family background (sex, race, parent
  • Teacher quality and leadership in parent
  • Parent reactions (rating of quality of homework
    assignments and requests)
  • Student effort (quality of homework completed)

  • Epstein found that teacher leadership in parent
    involvement in learning activities at home
    positively and significantly influences change in
    reading achievement
  • Epstein did not find a similar relationship for
    math achievement (reasons refer to page 61)
  • Parents are the one available but untapped and
    undirected resource that teachers can mobilize to
    help more children master and maintain needed
    skills for school

The relationship of parenting style to
Adolescent school performance (Dornbusch,
Sanford and , Child Development, Vol. 58, 1987)
  • Three parenting styles identified are
  • Authoritarian Parents tell children not to
    argue or question adults, punish children for
    poor grades, and respond to good grades with
    instructions to do even better
  • Permissive Parents seem indifferent to grades,
    whether poor or good, do not stress working hard,
    establish no rules about watching television, and
    are not involved in education, either at home or

  • Authoritative Parents tell children to look at
    both sides of an issue and admit that kids
    sometimes know more, they talk about family
    politics and encourage all family members to
    participate in decisions, they respond to good
    grades with praise, to bad grades with some
    restrictions and offers of help and encouragement

  • Across ethnic groups, education level, and family
    structures, authoritarian parenting was
    associated with the lowest grades, permissive
    parenting the next, and authoritative with the
    highest grades
  • Parenting style, or variations in family
    processes, is a more powerful predictor of
    student achievement than parent education,
    ethnic, or family structure
  • Subcategories response
  • Asian students do well in school regardless of
    parenting style, although there is negative
    relationship with authoritarian parenting

The effects of parent involvement on childrens
achievement The significance of home/school
links (Ontario, Canada) Ziegler, 1987
  • Two critical messages from the research
  • The gap in school achievement between
    working-class and middle-class children is more
    effectively explained by differing patterns of
    child-parent and parent-school interaction than
    it is by characteristics of socioeconomic status
  • School personnel can intervene positively and
    effectively to show parents how to help their
    children be successful. The attitudes and
    behavior of parents who have felt powerless and
    excluded can be changed. Aggressive outreach
    techniques may be necessary to establish
    communication with ethnic, racial, and
    language-minority families

  • Findings on parent involvement at home
  • School-related activities carried out by parents
    at home strongly influence childrens long-term
    academic success at all ages
  • Findings on parent involvement at school
  • Parent involvement in education is equally
    powerful whether the involvement occurs at home
    or at school
  • The presence of parents in school also help to
    transform the culture of school

Home-school relations and inequality in education
(Melbourne, Australia) (Toomey, 1986)
  • The programs offering home visits were more
    successful in involving disadvantaged parents
    than requiring parents to visit the school, but
    the programs requiring parents to visit the
    school produced higher gains in reading

Why disadvantaged students succeed What happen
outside school is critical (Clark, Reginald,1990)
  • Sample Black 12th-graders in Chicago
  • Hispanic, Asian, African-American, and Aglo
    elementary, middle and high school students in LA
  • Disadvantaged The lack of necessary conditions
    for educational and occupational success
  • High-achieving students typically spent 20 hours
    a week engaged in constructive learning
    activity after school. Supportive guidance from
    adults is a critical factor in whether such
    opportunities are available

  • The five categories of activities provide young
    people opportunities to engage in stimulating
    mental workouts
  • Professionally guided, formal learning activities
    (normally provided by schools)
  • Deliberate out-of-school learning and work
  • High-yield leisure activities (reading, writing,
    conversation, problem-solving, visiting museums)
  • Recreational activities
  • High maintenance activities

  • The high-yield activities need the following
  • Time spend on a particular task
  • Opportunity to become actively involved in
    thinking while doing the task
  • Extent of supportive input by knowledgeable
    adults and peers
  • Standards, expectations and goals that surround
    the activity

Family matters Evaluation of the parental
empowerment program (Cochran, Cornell U)
  • In-depth analysis based on
  • Family structure (married/unmarried)
  • Income
  • Race (Black/white)
  • Education (gt 12 years)
  • Parents perception of effectiveness
  • Parent-child activities
  • Types of communication with the school
  • Development of family support network

  • All these factors were compared to a matched
  • On the average, low-income children in the
    program performed as well as children with
    middle-class, married parents who were not in the
  • Children of single parents tend to do less well
    in school, unless parents were able to develop a
    social support network

  • How parents can become powerful force for
    building parent capacity?
  • School personnel can strengthen parents
    appreciation of their important role by providing
    positive feedback at every opportunity
  • Communications between home and school should be
    positive and preventive rather than negative and
  • School can strengthen informal social support for
  • Provide parents with information and materials to
    help them work with their children at home

Educating poor minority children (Cormer)
  • A long-term program to transform two chronically
    low-achieving, inner city New Haven Elementary
    schools (1968)
  • 99 black and almost entirely low-income
  • Serious problems with attendance, discipline and
    staff turnover
  • Each school created a governance and management
    team led by the principal and made up of elected
    parents and teachers, a mental-health specialist
    and a support staff
  • The team a mental health group to handle each
    case and to recommend changes in school policies
    and practices that impeded childrens development
  • A discovery room allowed turned off children to
    form a trusting relationship with an adult

  • Results
  • During the first five years, both schools
    attained the best records in the city and
  • By 1979, students in the 4th grade were
    performing at grade level (without any change in
    SES makeup)
  • Bt 1984, 4th grades in both schools ranked 3rd
    and 4th highest on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills

Cormers words
  • Children from poor/marginal family
  • Enter school without adequate preparation
  • Lack of social skills negotiation and
  • Never have heard bedtime stories
  • Language skills underdeveloped/non-standard
  • (How about characteristics of poor/marginal
    family in your community?)

Empowering minority students (Cummins)
  • The author proposes a theoretical framework for
    changing the relationship between educators and
    students that includes substantial family and
    community participation
  • The framework
  • Students from dominated minority groups can
    either be empowered or disabled
  • Power and status relations between minority and
    majority exert a major influence on school
    performance (minority students tend to
    internalize their inferior status and fail to
    perform well in school)

  • School failure does not occur in minority that
  • Remain positive oriented toward both their own
    and the dominant culture
  • Do not perceive themselves as inferior to the
    dominant group and
  • Are not alienated from their own cultural values
  • (How can we help them to achieve this?)

  • Schools that empower their students have the
    following characteristics
  • Additive The students language and culture
    are incorporated into the school program
  • Collaborative Family and community
    participation is encouraged as an integral
    component of childrens education
  • Interaction-oriented Children are motivated to
    use language actively in gaining knowledge for
    their own use and
  • Advocacy-oriented Educators become advocates
    for the students rather than labeling students as
    having a problem

Socioeconomic status, family structure, and
parental involvement The correlates of
achievement (Eagle)
  • The study assesses the varying effects of SES,
    parent education, mothers working patterns, and
    family structure on high school student
  • SES composites Mothers education, fathers
    education, fathers occupation status, family
    income, and number of certain possessions
  • Are advantageous home environment more common in
    high SES homes? Yes. Therefore, SES is
    considered to be associated with high student
  • Does high SES alone account for higher
    achievement or does family involvement in
    education have an independent effect?

  • The researcher controlled for SES and found that
    three factors that demonstrated a significant
    impact independent of SES are
  • The possessions index
  • Students living with neither original parent
  • Parent involvement during high school (the most
  • Students educational attainment was strongly
    associated with five indicators of SES composite

  • Family background Family composition, parent
    involvement during high school, parents reading
    to children during childhood, mother employment
    status, and having a special place at home to
  • The study found that only a place to study,
    family reading, and family involvement during
    high school (ranked from least to most impact)
    are significantly related to student achievement

Family structure and the achievement of student
  • What matters is not family structure, but whether
    parents are able to provide educational
    experience for their children
  • Children from two-parent families tended to be a
    few months ahead of children from single-parent
  • Educational level of mother (caregiver) is
    critical in determining the effects of the the
    mothers working, while income is critical in
    determining the impact of the number of parents

Community involvement and disadvantaged students
  • Nettles defines community involvement as the
    actions that organizations and individuals
    (parents, businesses, universities, social
    service agencies, and the media) take to promote
  • Nettles suggests a typology of change processes
    such community-based programs bring
  • Conversion Bringing the student from one set
    of attitudes and behaviors to another
  • Mobilization Increasing citizen and local
    organization participation in the educational
  • Allocation providing resources such as social
    service/financial incentives to children
  • Instruction Assisting students in their
    intellectual development and in learning social
    and civic skills

A New Wave of Evidence The Impact of School,
Family, and Community Connections on Student
Achievement Annual Synthesis 2002 Anne T.
Henderson Karen L. Mapp
How Do The Studies Define Student Achievement?
  • For young children Teacher ratings of school
    adjustment, vocabulary, reading and language
    skills, social and motor skills
  • For school-age children report card grades,
    grade point averages, enrolment in advance
    classes, and standardized test scores
  • Attendance, staying in school, and being promoted
    to the next grade
  • Improved behavior and healthy development
    (Example, less substance abuse and disruptive

A New Wave of Evidence The Impact of School,
Family, and Community Connections on Student
Achievement (Henderson Mapp, 2002)
  • Studies on the impact of parent and community
  • Benefits for students
  • Higher grade point averages and scores on
    standardized tests
  • Enrollment in more challenging academic programs
  • More classes passed
  • Better attendance
  • Improved behavior at home and at school
  • Better social skills

Three Broad Categories
  • Studies on
  • The impact of family and community involvement on
    student achievement
  • Effective strategies to connect schools, families
    and community
  • Parent and community organizing efforts to
    improve schools

Impact of Parent/Community Involvement on Student
  • Factors contribute to school improvement
  • High standards and expectations for all students
  • Effective leadership
  • Frequent monitoring of teaching and learning
  • Focused professional development
  • High levels of parent and community involvement
  • Some forms of parent involvement with schools
    appeared to have little effect on student
    achievement, especially in high school. They
  • Communications with school, volunteering,
    attending school events, parent-parent connection

  • A few found that parent involvement with homework
    and parent-initiated contacts with school were
    negatively related to grades and test scores
    (Catsmbis, 1998 Fan and Chen, 1999 Izzo et al.,
    1999 Shumow and Miller, 2001)
  • They interpreted their results to mean that
    parents of struggling students provide more help
    at home than parents of successful students.
    These parents also tend to seek help from school
  • Key finding 1
  • Programs and interventions that engage families
    in supporting their childrens learning at home
    are linked to higher academic achievement
  • Most of these programs are aimed at families
    with young children, from birth through
    kindergarten, then in elementary schools
  • The programs include Head Start, Project EASE
    (Early Access to Success in Education, HIPPY
    (program Home Instruction Program for Preschool

  • Birth through preschool
  • An experimental study at Mathematica Policy
    Research and the Center for Children and Families
    at Columbia University (2001) produced the
    following results
  • The program studied 17 sites and involved about
    3,000 children
  • When the children were 2 years old, the Early
    Head Start children
  • scored higher on cognitive development scales,
  • used more words,
  • spoke in complex sentences than the
    control- group children

  • Studies conducted for the HIPPY (Home Instruction
    Program for Preschool Youngsters) program showed
    mixed results
  • An experimental study carried in Turkey (over ten
    years) showed the following results
  • The four settings studied were
  • Home care provided by mothers with training, home
    visits, and discussion group (HIPPY)
  • Home care provided by mothers with no support
  • Childcare without education, and
  • Educational nursery schools
  • In the short terms, children in both HIPPY and
    nursery settings made greater progress than
    children in the other two groups
  • Seven years after completing the program, the
    HIPPY children showed greater gains than children
    in other groups
  • They earned higher scores in math and reading and
    in social development and were likely to stay in

  • Elementary and middle school
  • A study done by Westat and Policy Studies
    Associates (2001) to look at the impact of the
    Title 1 Program in 71 elementary schools
  • The study used advanced statistics to analyze the
    relationship between student test scores and the
    following practices
  • Visibility of standards and assessments
  • Basic or advance teaching techniques
  • Teacher preparation and teachers skills in math
  • High or low ratings (by teachers) of professional
  • Focus on assessment and accountability
  • District standards policies
  • Outreach to parents

  • Measurement for outreach to parents covered
  • Meeting face to face
  • Sending materials on ways to help their children
    at home
  • Telephone both routinely and when the child was
    having problems
  • Research results
  • Teacher outreach to parents of low-performing
    students was related to improved student
    achievement in both reading and math (40 higher)
  • Only the professional development that was
    highly rated by teacher was consistently linked
    to gains in both subjects

  • A study carried by Epstein, Salinas, Simon,
    (1997) at Johns Hopkins University on middle
    school children by looking at the TIPS (Teachers
    Involving Parents in Schoolwork) program
  • Results showed that
  • Parent involvement boosted sixth and eighth grade
    students writing scores
  • The more TIPS homework students completed, the
    better their grades in language arts)

  • Key finding 2
  • The continuity of family involvement at home
    appears to have a protective effect an children
    as they progress though our complex education
    system. The more families support their
    childrens learning and educational progress, the
    more their children tend to do well in school and
    continue their education
  • The protective effect When students report
    feeling support from both home and school, they
    tend to do better in school.
  • Key finding 3
  • Families of all cultural backgrounds, education,
    and income levels encourage their children, talk
    with them about school, help them plan for higher
    education, and keep them focused on learning and
    homework. All families can, and often do, have a
    positive influence on their childrens learning
  • Relating gender to different types of
    involvement, Lee Shumow and Joe Miller found
  • Fathers and mothers were equally involved at
    home, but mothers were more involved at school
    then fathers
  • Fathers of all education levels were less
    involved at school than mothers
  • Student gender did not make a difference in the
    level or type of parent involvement

  • Key finding 4
  • Parent and community involvement that is linked
    to student achievement has a greater effect on
    achievement than more general forms of
    involvement. To be effective, the form of
    involvement should be focused on improving
    achievement and be designed to engage families
    and students in developing specific knowledge

Effective Strategies to Connect Schools, Families
and Community
  • Key finding 1
  • Programs that are successful invite involvement,
    are welcoming, and address specific parent and
    community needs
  • Key finding 2
  • Programs that are effective in engaging diverse
    families recognize, respect, and address cultural
    and class differences

  • Key finding 3
  • Effective programs embrace a philosophy of
    partnership a collaborative enterprise among
    parents, school staff, and community members

Parent and Community Organizing Efforts to
Improve Schools
  • Key finding 1
  • Organized initiatives to build parent and
    community leadership to improve low-performing
    schools are developing in low-income urban areas
    and the rural south. They have contributed to
    changes in policy, resources, personnel, school
    culture, and educational programs

Recommendations From Research Findings
  • All parents (regardless of income, education
    level, or cultural background) are involved in
    their childrens education and want their
    children to do well in school.
  • Create programs that will support families to
    guide their childrens learning, from preschool
    through high school
  • Practices suggested for middle and elementary
  • Interactive homework that involve parents
  • Workshops on topics like building childrens
    vocabulary, develop positive discipline
    strategies, and supporting children through
  • Regular calls from teachers. Lead with something
  • Learning packets in reading, science, and math
  • Meeting with teachers to talk about their
    childrens progress and what theyre learning

  • Practices for high schools
  • Regular meetings with teachers and counselors to
    plan their childrens academic plan
  • Inforation about program options, graduation
    requirements, post-secondary education options
  • Explanation of courses students should take to
    be prepared for college
  • Information about financing postsecondary
    education and applying for financial aid
  • 3. Work with families to build their social and
    political connections
  • 4 Develop the capacity of school staff to work
    with families and community members

  • 5 Link family and community engagement efforts to
    student learning
  • 6 Focus efforts to engage families and community
    members to developing trusting and respectful
  • 7 Make sure that parents, school staff, and
    community members understand that the
    responsibility for childrens educational
    development is a collaborative enterprise
  • 8 Build strong connections between schools and
    community organizations
  • 9 Conduct research that is more rigorous and
    focused, and uses more culturally sensitive and
    empowering definition of parent involvement