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Sentences and Sentence Structure Errors

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Sentences and Sentence Structure Errors – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sentences and Sentence Structure Errors


1
Sentences and Sentence Structure Errors
2
The Dreaded Complete Sentence
  • To be a complete sentence, a group of words must
    have three things
  • 1) A _____________ (noun or pronoun)
  • 2) A __________________(verb)
  • 3) Express a _________________________
  • If a group of words does not have the above
    things, or has too many, it commits a
    _____________________________________.
  • NOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO!!!!

3
Sentence Structure Errors
  • There are three types of sentence structure
    errors
  • 1) _____________________ Incomplete sentences
  • 2) ______________________ Too many complete
    sentences separated with no complete sentences
  • 3) ________________________ Too many complete
    sentences separated with a comma instead of a
    period

4
Fragments
  • 1) Fragment A ___________________________________
    ________________________ that is punctuated as
    if it were complete (with a capital letter and a
    period)
  • Is missing one or more of the following
  • 1) A _______________
  • 2) A ______________________
  • 3) A __________________________
  • Why is this bad?
  • Think of it like a partial train car. Without
    all the parts, it wont be able to run! A
    fragment _________________________________________
    __.

5
Fixing Fragments
  • Since fragments are only a part of a sentence,
    you have to ______________________________________
    __________ to make it a complete sentence.
  • Though Bernard likes school.
  • Though Bernard likes school, _____________________
    _______ ________________________________________(c
    omplete thought add independent clause!)
  • _____________________________. (eliminate
    subordinating conjunction)
  • Because of the students misbehavior with the
    substitute.
  • Because of the students misbehavior with the
    substitute, ____________________________________.
    (add subject, verb, and complete thought)

6
Run-Ons
  • 2) Run-on _______________________________________
    __ _____________________________________
    punctuated as a single sentence (The thoughts
    run on without stopping!)
  • Why is this bad?
  • This makes the ideas run together, which can be
    quite _________________________________________.
  • Think of it like two train engines
    crammed together. With that many ideas
    (engines), youll get a runaway train!

7
Fixing a Run-On
  • To fix a run-on, we have a few options
  • 1) _______________________________________________
    _____ We can do this with various red light
    punctuation
  • Period and capital letter
  • Semi-colon and lower case letter
  • 2) _______________________________________________
    ___correctly with the use of the following
    conjunctions
  • FANBOYS (with a comma)
  • Subordinating (with a comma sometimes)
  • Correlative (with a comma sometimes)
  • Note Conjunctive adverbs ________________________
    __________ __________________. It can only start
    a new one.
  • Another Note A ______________alone WILL NOT fix
    a run-on!

8
Fixing Run-Ons
  • Darcy cant stand Theodore he smells like cheese.
  • What are the ways we can stop this runaway train?
  • STOP between the two separate sentences
  • Darcy cant stand Theodore_________smells like
    cheese.
  • Darcy cant stand Theodore_________smells like
    cheese.

9
Fixing Run-Ons
2. CONNECT the separate sentences correctly with
the appropriate conjunction FANBOYS Darcy
cant stand Theodore________he smells like
cheese. Subordinating Darcy cant stand Theodore
______________he smells like cheese. ____________h
e smells like cheese___Darcy cant stand
Theodore. Darcy ____________he smells like
cheese___cant stand Theodore. Correlative (Doesn
t really work for this example, but heres
something similar.) __________ does Theodore
smell like cheese________he ______enjoys cheese
as a tasty snack. What about Conjunctive
Adverbs? (consequently, therefore, etc.)
10
Fixing Run-Ons
  • What about Conjunctive Adverbs? (consequently,
    therefore, etc.)
  • A conjunctive adverb and a comma CANNOT fix a
    run-on!
  • Darcy cant stand Theodore________________he
    smells like cheese.
  • NOOOOOOO!
  • Darcy cant stand Theodore________________he
    smells like cheese.
  • NOOOOOOO!
  • All of these are incorrect. In fact, they went
    from a run-on to another sentence structure
    error the comma splice!

11
Comma Splices
  • 3) Comma Splices Splitting two independent
    clauses __________________________________________
    ____ (Placing a comma where there SHOULD be a
    period)
  • Why is this bad?
  • A comma inserts a brief pause, but this isnt
    enough. After the pause, the reader just keeps
    running on to the next thought! This is very
    confusing for the reader.
  • You must _________________________________ or use
    _________________________ to appropriately
    connect the thoughts. A comma is not enough!

12
Fixing a Comma Splice
  • To fix a comma splice, we have the
    ___________________________ (since its
    essentially the same as a run-on with the
    addition of a comma)
  • 1) _________________________________________(inste
    ad of pause).
  • Period and capital letter
  • Semi-colon and lower case letter
  • 2) __________________________________(and comma
    if necessary)
  • FANBOYS (with a comma)
  • Subordinating (with a comma sometimes)
  • Correlative (with a comma sometimes)
  • Note __________________________________still
    dont work!

13
Fixing Comma Splices
  • Theodore loves Darcy, she smells like cookies.
  • What are the ways we can revise this correctly?
  • STOP between the two separate sentences
  • Theodore loves Darcy_________smells like cookies.
  • Theodore loves Darcy_________smells like cookies.

14
Fixing Comma Splices
2. CONNECT the separate sentences correctly with
the appropriate conjunction FANBOYS Theodore
loves Darcy__________she smells like
cookies. Subordinating Theodore loves Darcy
___________she smells like cookies. __________she
smells like cookies_____Theodore loves
Darcy. Theodore__________________she smells like
cookies_____loves Darcy. Correlative (Doesnt
really work for this example, but heres
something similar.) __________________ does Darcy
smell like cookies__________ Theodore
_____________loves her. What about Conjunctive
Adverbs? (consequently, therefore, etc.)
15
Fixing Comma Splices
  • What about Conjunctive Adverbs? (consequently,
    therefore, etc.)
  • A conjunctive adverb and a comma CANNOT fix a
    comma splice!
  • Theodore loves Darcy_________________she smells
    like cookies.
  • NOOOOOOO!
  • Theodore loves Darcy_________________she smells
    like cookies.
  • NOOOOOOO!
  • All of these are wrong wrong wrong! How can we
    fix it?
  • Theodore loves Darcy_________________she smells
    like cookies.

16
Identify the Errorand Fix It!
  • Decide if the following are examples of
    fragments, run-ons, comma splices, or complete
    sentences. Then fix the error using the ways
    weve learned.
  • 1. Because Herald forgot his book.
  • Error?
  • ______________________________
  • Revision? (Choose 1-2)
  • _________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________________________________________

17
Identify the Errorand Fix It!
  • Herald is not a very good student, he refuses to
    do his homework.
  • Error?
  • ____________________________________
  • Revision?
  • _________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________

18
Identify the Errorand Fix It!
  • Paul ran then he decided to relax.
  • Error?
  • ___________________________________________
  • Revision?
  • _________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________

19
Identify the Errorand Fix It!
  • Paul ran then he decided to relax.
  • Error?
  • ______________________________________________
  • Revision?
  • _________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______________

20
Identify the Errorand Fix It!
  • Amy went home because she became incredibly
    sleepy.
  • Error?
  • ___________________________________________
  • Revision?
  • _________________________________________________
    __________
  • Despite his lack of patience for people who never
    meet deadlines.
  • Error?
  • ______________________________________________
  • Revision?
  • _________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ___________________

21
Identify the Errorand Fix It!
  • Margaret arrived tardy, therefore, she didnt
    have time to finish the quiz.
  • Error?
  • _______________________________________________
  • Revision?
  • _________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _______________________

22
Why does it matter ?
  • WRITING WRITING WRITING!
  • Sentence structure errors and punctuation are not
    only VERY frequent ___________________________,
    but also compromise the ___________________of
    your writing!
  • Sentence structure errors severely impede (get in
    the way of) meaning and clarity.
  • They also are _________________________________
    for college-level writing, yet these concepts are
    not taught.

23
Summary/Quiz Questions
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