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The Institutions


The Institutions Unit IVC The Federal Bureaucracy – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Institutions

The Institutions
  • Unit IVC
  • The Federal Bureaucracy

  • A systematic and hierarchical organization in
    government established to develop and implement
    policies and regulations in relation to enacted
  • Principles
  • Hierarchical Authority
  • Pyramid structure
  • Job Specialization
  • Division of labor specific duties and
    responsibilities for each individual position
  • Rules and Regulations
  • Established regulations and procedures for
  • Discretionary authority
  • Legislative rule-making
  • Executive rule administration
  • Judicial rule adjudication

Development of the Federal Bureaucracy
  • Early Constitutional Period
  • Small number of agencies and positions
  • Selection based on qualifications and political
  • Antebellum Period
  • Jackson and the spoils system
  • Late 19th Century
  • Reform movements
  • Pendleton Act/Civil Service Act of 1883
  • Merit system, competitive exams limited partisan
  • Established Civil Service Commission to enforce
  • Modern Bureaucracy
  • Agencies grew substantially due to New Deal
    programs, cooperative federalism
  • Hatch Act (1939)
  • Limited political activities on duty, use of
    position for campaigns
  • Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
  • Established Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
  • Established government employee classifications
    and salaries, training and recruitment programs
  • Protection of whistleblowers

Growth of Modern Bureaucracy
  • Power and Justification
  • Evolving Government for Evolving World
  • Technological development, efficient
    communication, world affairs, globalization
    require increased diligence and vigilance
  • Buddy System
  • Agencies may request to fill a position and
    specifically name an individual for the job
  • Difficulty of Termination
  • Numerous steps to ultimately fire a government
  • Official record of chronic behavior, substantial
    evidence, public hearings, viable witnesses,
    right of due process, appeals

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Federal Bureaucracy Organization
  • Executive Departments
  • Cabinet-level executive agencies established for
    specific policy areas
  • Agency heads work at the pleasure of the
  • May be impeached/removed by Congress
  • Independent Executive Agencies
  • Administration, policy analysis, intelligence
  • Agency heads work at the pleasure of the
  • May report to Congress and other agencies
  • May be impeached/removed by Congress
  • Independent Regulatory Agencies
  • Agencies that regulate and police enforcers of
  • Function outside influence of the President
  • Agency heads serve fixed terms and only removed
    for just cause
  • Government Corporations
  • Business-like agencies usually providing goods
    and services

The Executive Departments
  • State
  • Treasury
  • United States Mint/Bureau of Engraving and
  • Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
  • Defense (The Pentagon)
  • National Security Agency (NSA)
  • Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA)
  • Justice
  • Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI)
  • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and
    Explosives (ATF)
  • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
  • U.S. Marshals Service
  • Office of the Solicitor General
  • Interior
  • National Park Service
  • Bureau of Indian Affairs
  • Agriculture (USDA)
  • Commerce
  • Bureau of the Census
  • Labor
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
  • Health and Human Services
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Medicare
  • Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  • Transportation
  • Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
  • Energy
  • Education
  • Veterans Affairs
  • Homeland Security
  • United States Coast Guard
  • Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
  • U.S. Customs and Border Protection
  • United States Secret Service
  • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

Independent Executive Agencies
  • Small Business Administration (SBA)
  • Promote small businesses and economic recovery
  • Social Security Administration (SSA)
  • Social security checks and applications
  • National Aeronautic and Space Administration
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • Foreign policy information espionage
  • Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
  • Selective Service System (SSS)
  • National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities
  • National Archives and Records Administration
  • Peace Corps

Independent Regulatory Agencies
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • Prevent monopolies consumer protection
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
  • Securities, stocks, bonds, commodity trading
  • Federal Reserve
  • Monetary policy
  • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
  • Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • Federal Elections Commission (FEC)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
  • Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
  • Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC)
  • Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)
  • Federal Maritime Commission (FMC)

Government Corporations
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • National Railroad Passenger Corporation (AMTRAK)
  • United States Postal Service (USPS)
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  • Corporation for Public Broadcasting
  • Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
  • National Public Radio (NPR)
  • Government Enterprises
  • Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie
  • Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie

Bureaucrats as Policymakers
  • Iron Triangles
  • Bureaucratic Agency
  • Receive increased power and appropriations
  • Congressional Committee
  • Receive electoral support and campaign
  • Interest Groups
  • Interests satisfied
  • Designed for mutual benefit
  • Issue Networks
  • Congressional Staff
  • Experts/Professors
  • Interest Groups
  • Mass Media
  • Designed for the benefit of public interest

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Controlling the Bureaucrats
  • Congress
  • Authorization
  • Permitting funds by related committees
  • Appropriations
  • Reallocation of federal funding
  • Oversight
  • Supervision and investigations by committees
  • Subpoena agencies for public committee hearings
  • Legislative Authority
  • Pass laws to limit or terminate an agency
  • The President
  • Appointments
  • Change department/agency heads for a supportive
    or efficient leader
  • Executive Orders
  • President invokes preferences through legal means
  • Office of Management and Budget
  • Change agency budget require increased
  • Reorganization
  • Supreme Court

Bureaucratic Issues/Problems
  • Red Tape
  • Complex rules and procedures to accomplish tasks
  • Make sure the government is being equal and
  • Too much paperwork. Slows down process.
    Frustrating for constituents.
  • Conflict
  • Rivalries between agencies on similar policies
  • Sometimes the goal/objective is overlooked by
  • Duplication
  • Agencies performing same or similar tasks
  • Congress doesnt know what its doing, but they
    made the laws so we follow them.
  • Imperialism
  • Increase of agencys power and influence no
    matter the cost
  • We interpreted the vague law as best we could
    and developed our policies in accordance. Tell
    Congress to write clearer laws.
  • Waste
  • Inefficient use of funding and manpower spending
    too much
  • Why lower costs? Were the government. Theres
  • Lining the pockets of bureaucrats and lobbyists.

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