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Improving safety oversight through technical cooperation and transparency of information

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Title: Improving safety oversight through technical cooperation and transparency of information


1
Improving safety oversight through technical
cooperation and transparency of information
2
Strengthening aviation safety oversight through
technical cooperation
  • The overall level of compliance with ICAO
    standards remains unsatisfactory
  • It is the responsibility of the international
    aviation community to assist those States which
    are unable to discharge their safety obligations
  • Particular attention should be given to States
    with unresolved Significant Safety Concerns
    (SSC)
  • The pooling of resources through regional
    organisations can constitute an efficient means
    of strengthening safety
  • The coordinating role of ICAO is of paramount
    importance
  • The newly developed ICAO policy on regional
    governance is particularly welcome

3
Strengthening aviation safety oversight through
enhanced transparency
  • Transparency in safety performance is fundamental
    to a safe air transport system. It is also an
    essential pre-requisite for a sound mutual
    recognition system
  • Progress in the promotion of transparency was
    achieved through the procedure of disclosing the
    USOAP information to the public
  • In Europe, transparency is further pursued
    through a procedure for establishing a list of
    unsafe airlines
  • The listing of unsafe airlines has proved to be
    effective in correcting significant safety
    deficiencies and serves as a strong incentive to
    worldwide air carriers and civil aviation
    authorities to continuously improve safety

4
Relationship between transparency and enforcement
  • It is also the responsibility of the
    international community to take action in cases
    of persistent disregard for aviation safety
  • Action needs to be taken to minimize the
    continuing aviation safety risk to the travelling
    public
  • Europe also calls for the disclosure of
    unresolved SSCs not only on the ICAO secure
    website but also in the public domain, while
    ensuring that passengers are informed of an
    increased safety risk
  • It is also proposed that no new airline
    designator codes should be issued by ICAO to
    airlines under the responsibility of a State with
    an unresolved SSC
  • The criteria for the application of the SSC
    procedure are worthy reviewing

5
Proposals for the Conference
  • Call upon the contracting CSs, regional
    organisations, donors and ICAO to more actively
    coordinate their technical cooperation efforts
    giving particular priority to regional
    cooperation projects
  • Call upon ICAO to convene a series of meetings to
    identify support for States with unresolved SSCs
  • Invite CSs to agree to make public unresolved
    SSCs and to call upon ICAO to bring to the
    attention of CSs and Regional Organisations all
    significant-safety infractions of the Convention

6
Proposals for the Conference
  • Call upon ICAO to give urgent consideration to
    communicating to the traveling public information
    about the way States are discharging their safety
    obligations
  • Recommend ICAO procedures are developed not to
    issue airline designator codes to airlines under
    the responsibility of a CS subject to an
    unresolved SSC
  • Call upon ICAO and CSs to review SSC criteria in
    view of USOAP findings, their severity, the level
    of effective implementation of SARPs and relevant
    differences filed against ICAO SARPs

7
Development of a new State Safety Management
annex
8
  • There is a need to document more clearly the
    various safety tasks which lie with States by
    bringing them in a new Annex to the Chicago
    Convention
  • State Safety Management
  • SSP Framework ICAO Annexes 1, 6, 8, 11, 13 and
    14. Consistency and clarity would be better
    served if these provisions were not scattered in
    such way
  • The new Annex offers an opportunity to resolve
    current terminological inconsistencies and to
    clarify the SSP concept and its relationship to
    the industry mandated SMS provisions and the
    critical elements of a State Safety Oversight
    System

9
Contents of the new Annex
  • State Safety Programme provisions and its
    relationship to the 8 critical elements of a
    State Safety Oversight System
  • High-level Safety Management System requirements.
  • Industry-specific SMS mandates should remain in
    their respective Annexes
  • Measures in Chapter 8 of Annex 13 concerning
    accident prevention
  • Specific provisions dealing with investigation
    activity should remain in Annex 13 to give
    visibility as well as reflect the independence of
    the safety investigation process

10
Proposals for the Conference
  • For the next Assembly, recommend that ICAO
    Council, taking into account its
    cost-effectiveness, studies the opportunity of
    creating a new Annex to the Chicago Convention
    entitled State Safety Management

11
Safeguarding flight data and locating/recovering
on-board recorders
12
  • Following recent accidents French BEA established
    a Flight Data Recovery Working Group to look into
    new technology
  • to safeguard flight data
  • to facilitate the location and recovery of
    on-board recorders
  • Items of reference were to
  • Propose solutions to enhance the recovery of
    flight data after an accident
  • Asses the technical feasibility of each solution
  • Present the advantages and disadvantages of each
    solution
  • Present the degree of maturity as well as the
    cost of each solution
  • The Flight Data Recovery Working Group did not
    cover legal aspects

13
  • Within the framework of the AF447 investigation,
    the BEA issued safety recommendations based on
    the work done by the Working Group, settled on
    three areas for significant improvements in
    safety
  • Increasing the transmission time and range of the
    ULB beacons
  • The sending of data on initialisation
  • The installation of deployable recorders
  • AIG2008 agreed to recommend the implementation of
    Paragraph 5.12 and associated Attachment E

14
Proposals for the Conference
  • Recommend ICAO to evaluate changes in flight data
    recording and protection and propose changes in
    the appropriate Annexes
  • It could be done by the FLIRECP panel,
    transformed to also address data protection and
    other topics raised by AIG2008

15
Permanent communications with aircraft over
oceanic areas
16
  • Loss of AF447 highlighted that non-permanent
    communication may adversely impact on
  • the timely launching of search and rescue phases
  • aircraft wreckage recovery
  • Potential of improved surveillance and route
    conformance monitoring
  • Enhance flight safety and efficiency

17
Proposals for the Conference
  • Call on ICAO to
  • undertake a comprehensive review of potential
    short term enhancements to flight tracking and
    route conformance monitoring capabilities
  • ADS-C and CPDLC capabilities through satellite
    communications.
  • review means and procedures which mitigate HF
    communication reliability issues over the high
    seas
  • review the use of modern communication
    technologies in case of emergency
  • explore longer term solutions to those issues,
    taking account existing regional initiatives
  • OPTIMI
  • report by the Council to the 37th Assembly

18
The application of safety management principles
to the design of flight deck activities
19
  • Information from many sources provides evidence
    of breakdown in flight deck activities leading to
    serious events or unsafe situations
  • Despite the interventions, based on applied human
    factor research (i.e. SOPs, CRM), to the design
    of flight deck activities, proper and effective
    checklist and SOP design continues to be an
    industry concern
  • The application of safety management principles
    to flight deck activities has a promising
    potential to protect against safety
    vulnerabilities during high workload phases of
    flight operations

20
  • Application of safety management principles
    should encompass two aspects
  • Flight crew training
  • Need for broad implementation of Threat and Error
    Management (TEM) training
  • Flight deck activities design and
    standardization
  • Checklist design
  • Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for
    checklist execution, including flight crew
    briefings
  • Flight deck procedures and their relationship to
    the external flight environment
  • The design criteria for certification of warning
    systems (i.e. TOWS, LWS)
  • Flight crew training addressing the essential
    role checklists play and the need for strict
    adherence to the procedures established to
    support their execution

21
Proposals for the Conference
  • Propose that ICAO addresses and supports the need
    for broad implementation of the principles of TEM
    training for flight crews and
  • With the support of a group of experts from
    States and industry stakeholders, ICAO
  • studies the application of safety management
    principles and methodologies for the design and
    implementation of checklists and flight deck
    procedures, as well as for the certification
    criteria of warning systems, with a particular
    emphasis to the critical phases of flight
    operations
  • develops guidelines applicable to such an
    application
  • develops as necessary standards and recommended
    practices on the subject

22
Future pilot training
23
EASA Pilot training conference (1)
  • The EASA International Training Conference
    identified the following concerns about current
    pilot training
  • Good organisational safety culture needs to be
    encouraged
  • Growing body of evidence that over-reliance on
    automatics can lead to dependency, complacency
    and confusion
  • Highly automated aeroplanes mean
  • fewer opportunities for manual flying skills to
    be used
  • positive impacts on safety, operational and fuel
    efficiency and reduction of emissions
  • The ability to recover from unusual aircraft
    attitudes should be optimized

24
EASA Pilot training conference (2)
  • Other topics addressed
  • Training methods
  • Prescriptive traininggt competency and
    evidence-based training
  • Pilot selection
  • Instructor training
  • Analysis of incidents and accidents to identify
    training needs
  • Negative training should be better understood
    and clear guidance made available

25
Need for further work
  • Lack of detailed quantitative data
  • to better understand the part played by pilot
    training in accidents and incidents
  • To continue with analyses that may help identify
    other courses of action that will prove to have
    safety benefits
  • The exchange of relevant safety information plays
    an important role
  • Multi-crew Pilot Licence (MPL) implementation has
    been poor and its review is needed
  • Threat and Error Management (TEM) training should
    be encouraged

26
Proposals for the Conference
  • Recommend to ICAO the establishment of a working
    group to
  • Seek a global consensus on the approach for
    future pilot training, reviewing
  • Rules for MPL
  • Work done in evidence-based and competency-based
  • Review requirements to guard against the loss of
    manual flying skills
  • Support the need for broad implementation of
    Threat and Error Management training for pilots
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