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Chapter 13 Forensic Anthropology: Dead Men do Tell Tales

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Chapter 13 Forensic Anthropology: Dead Men do Tell Tales Anthropology and Crime Kathy Reichs- Bones * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 13 Forensic Anthropology: Dead Men do Tell Tales


1
Chapter 13 Forensic Anthropology Dead Men do
Tell Tales
  • Anthropology and Crime
  • Kathy Reichs- Bones

2
Historical Development
  1. In the 1800s, scientists began studying skulls.
    This laid the framework for todays knowledge.
  2. In 1932 the FBI opened the first crime lab.
  3. The Smithsonian Institution became its working
    partner in the identification of human remains.
  4. Soldiers killed in World War II were identified
    using anthropologic techniques.

3
Development of Bone
  • Bones originate from cells called osteoblasts.
  • They migrate to the center of cartilage
    production and deposit minerals.
  • Throughout life, bones are being broken down,
    deposited, and replaced.
  • Osteoclasts, the 2nd type of bone cell, among
    other tasks, remove cellular wastes.

4
How Bones Connect
  • Bones are held together by
  • cartilagewraps the ends of bones and keeps them
    from scraping one another.
  • ligamentsbands that connect two or more bones
    together.
  • tendonsconnect muscle to bone.

5
  • As long as cartilage is present bones can still
    grow
  • Females- grow till 18
  • Males grow till 20-21
  • 18-30 years old- bone loss bone mineral deposit
  • After 30 bone loss exceeds deposits (bones
    shrink) , can lessen with exercise

6
What Bones Can Tell Us
  • Osteobiography tells much about a person through
    the study of the skeleton.
  • The bones of a right-handed person, for example,
    would be slightly larger than the bones of the
    left arm.
  • Forensic scientists realize that bones contain a
    record of the physical life.
  • Analyzing bones can reveal clues to such things
    as gender, age, height, and health.

7
Gender - Skull
  • Female skull is rounder and smaller than males
  • Female forehead is longer vertically and jaw is
    smaller
  • Male jaw is square with an angle of 90 degrees
  • Occipital protuberance (bony knob on base of
    skull)on males is larger

8
Gender - Pelvis
  • The surface of a womans pelvis can be scarred
    after childbirth
  • The sub pubic angle of the female pelvis is
    greater than 90o, lighter and smoother, the
    males, less
  • Female tailbone (coccyx) is more flexible
  • Womans pelvic girdle is wider

9
Pictures
  • http//anthropology.si.edu/writteninbone/comic/act
    ivity/pdf/skeleton_male_or_female.pdf

10
Age
  • By about age 30, the suture at the back of the
    skull will have closed.
  • By about age 32, the suture running across the
    top of the skull, back to front, will have
    closed.
  • By about age 50, the suture running side to side
    over the top of the skull, near the front, will
    have closed.

11
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12
Age
  • During life, many of the 450 bones a person has
    at birth grow together, finally forming 206
    bones.
  • As the cartilage between them is replaced, an
    epiphysis line is visible.
  • When the cartilage is fully replaced, the line is
    no longer visible.
  • Ends of sternal rib bones are rounded in young
    adults, jagged and cup shaped w/ age

13
Age- Teeth
  • Look for eruption of baby teeth or permanent
    teeth (occurs at regular intervals- very accurate
  • Loss of permanent teeth associated with old age
  • Teeth wear occurs w/ age and more dentine
    (yellowing) is exposed with loss of outer white
    tooth enamel

14
  • p,. 15-16 Teeth Eruption (can look through other
    pages for female/male/ age charts)

15
Height
  • An estimate of height can also be made by looking
    at arm and leg bones.
  • Often, the approximate height of a person can be
    calculated from one of the long bones even if
    just one of those is found. (formulas on page
    371)
  • Gender and race will need to be taken into
    consideration in making the estimate.

16
Race
  • Classify into three categories Caucasoid
    (includes European, Italian, Arab, Indian),
    Negroid (African, Jamaican) , Mongoloid (Asian,
    American Indian, Alaskan, Hawaiian, South
    American)

17
General Race Characteristics
18
Race
  • In the absence of DNA, can you really determine
    race from a jawbone?
  • Probably not.
  • If you place an Asian jawbone on a table, the
    bottom of it will likely maintain contact with
    the tabletop all the way around. African and
    Caucasian mandibles, in contrast, tend to
    undulate, or rise and fall along the lower
    border.

19
Race
  • The goniathat's the area beneath your ears where
    the jawbone turns upwardgenerally curve more
    sharply in an Asian jaw.
  • People of African descent often have slightly
    curled surfaces on the rear edges of their jaws,
    whereas European jaws are more likely to have a
    flatter edge.
  • Racial classification is an inexact science, if
    that's even the right word for it. Forensic
    anthropologists never make definitive ancestry
    pronouncements. They say a bone is "consistent
    with" European ancestry or "likely" of Asian
    ancestry.

20
Article Scientists disagree between race and
bones
  • http//abcnews.go.com/Technology/t/story?id98485
    refhttps3A2F2Fwww.google.com2F

21
Facial Reconstruction (how its made-facial) http/
/www.youtube.com/watch?featureendscreenv6G0LvIm
AGAgNR1
  • A face is formed by the skull with the muscles
    and tissues on top of the skull.
  • Theoretically, nonetheless, a face can be
    rebuilt from just skeletal remains.
  • Facial markers are positioned at critical
    locations on a skull, and clay is contoured to
    follow the height of the markers.
  • Today, computer programs perform a similar
    function.
  • These computer programs also can age missing
    persons and criminals.

22
DNA Evidence
  • Bone contains little nuclear DNA.
  • But it does contain mitochondrial DNA.
  • This has DNA that is inherited only from the
    mother.
  • Long after nuclear DNA has been lost through
    tissue degeneration, mitochondrial DNA can be
    obtained from bone.
  • Results can be compared with living relatives on
    the mothers side of the family to identify
    skeletal remains.

23
Skeletal Trauma Analysis
  • Forensic anthropologists often determine if
    damage to bones occurred before or after death.
  • Definite distinctions exist between patterns on
    bones made by weapons and the patterns created by
    the environment after death.
  • Sharp-force trauma, blunt-force trauma, gunshot
    wounds, and knife wounds all have distinctive
    patterns.

24
. . . . . . . . . . Summary . . . . . . . .
  • Bones are live and carry on all life functions.
  • The condition of bones can tell investigators
    about a persons health and nutrition during
    life.
  • Male and female skeletons differ in many ways.
  • The age of a person at death can be estimated by
    analysis of a number of bones.

25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary
  • A persons height can be estimated by the length
    of long bones.
  • Facial reconstruction is possible to some extent.
  • Mitochondrial DNA can be extracted to help
    identify skeletal remains.
  • Skeletal trauma analysis examines bones for
    evidence of damage.

26
  • CSI- Murfreesboro
  • Bone gunshot (bill bass)
  • Smithsonian
  • Bone Detective (56 min lecture-
    anthropologist)-start 15 min in

27
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28
Bone Height
  • Caucasion
  • Male 3.76 x length ulna (cm) 75.55 ( or
    4.72)
  • Female 4.27 x length ulna (cm) 57.76 ( or
    4.30)

29
Height Lab
  • Purpose
  • Part 1 Ulna bone length, predicted height with
    formula, actual height converted to cm and
    error
  • Part 2
  • Data table 1- convert actual height to cm,
  • Data table 2 measure ulna bone, using formula
    predict height, do error,
  • Graph (of actual height (data table 1) vs ulna
    bone length (data table 2)
  • Questions (including your predicted height using
    graph and error)

30
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31
  • Vitruvian man video- BBC (15 min)

32
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