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To Kill A Mockingbird

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CHARACTERS. Scout (Jean Louise Finch) Narrator, aged 6-9 but tells the story as an adult looking back, tomboy who is violent, develops a new understanding of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: To Kill A Mockingbird


1
To Kill A Mockingbird
  • Notes on York Notes for GCSE/Cliff Notes

2
HARPER LEE AUTHOR AND CONTEXT
  • 1926 Nelle Harper Lee is born in Monroeville,
    Alabama
  • 1929 Following the Wall Street Crash, the Great
    Economic Depression causes widespread poverty and
    unemployment
  • 1931 The Scottsboro incident occurs nine black
    young men are falsely charged and found guilty of
    raping two white women in Alabama
  • 1933 President Roosevelt introduces policies to
    alleviate the effects of the Depression
  • 1945-1949 Harper Lee starts but never completes a
    law degree at the State University of Alabama
  • 1950s Harper Lee gives up work as an airline
    reservations clerk in New York to write
    full-time, fine-tuning her novel over many years
  • 1954 The Civil Rights Movement, with Martin
    Luther King as an important leader, begins in
    Montgomery, Alabama
  • 1960 To Kill A Mockingbird is published and is an
    immediate bestseller
  • 1962 After winning the Pulitzer Prize and several
    other literary awards, the novel is made into a
    film
  • Present Day Harper Lee divides her time between
    New York City and Monroeville, Alabama, keeping
    out of the public eye

3
CHARACTERS
  • Scout (Jean Louise Finch) Narrator, aged 6-9
    but tells the story as an adult looking back,
    tomboy who is violent, develops a new
    understanding of human nature, societal
    expectations and her own existence
  • Atticus Finch Maycomb attorney and state
    legislative representative who is assigned to
    defend Tom Robinson
  • Jem (Jeremy Atticus Finch) Scouts older
    brother, aged 10-13, Scouts protector and best
    friend, he deals with many difficult issues
    throughout the story

4
CHARACTERS
  • Aunt Alexandra Atticus sister, lives at
    Finchs Landing, moves in with Atticus during Tom
    Robinsons trial, she is very concerned that
    Scout have a feminine influence to emulate
  • Francis Hancock Aunt Alexandras grandson, he
    taunts Scout about Atticus, getting her in
    trouble
  • Uncle Jack Atticus and Aunt Alexandras
    bachelor brother who comes to visit every
    Christmas, he is a doctor who, like Atticus, was
    home-schooled

5
CHARACTERS
  • Cal (Calpurnia) The Finchs black housekeeper,
    grew up at Finchs Landing and moved to Maycomb
    with Atticus, mother figure to Scout and Jem, one
    of the few black people in town who is literate,
    taught Scout to write
  • Zeebo The town rubbish man, Cals son, he is
    one of four people who can read at the First
    Purchase African M.E. Church

6
CHARACTERS
  • Boo (Mr. Arthur Radley) The mysterious
    neighbour who piques the childrens interest.
    Theyve never seen him and make a game of trying
    to get him to come outside
  • Nathan Radley Boos brother who comes to live
    with the family again after Mr. Radley dies
  • Mr and Mrs Radley Boo and Nathans parents
  • Dill (Charles Baker Harris) Jem and Scouts
    neighbourhood friend. Living in Meridian,
    Mississippi, Dill spends every summer with his
    aunt, Miss Rachel Haverford

7
CHARACTERS
  • Miss Rachel Haverford Dills aunt who lives
    next door to the Finches.
  • Miss Maudie Atkinson One of Maycombs most
    open-minded citizens, Miss Maudie lives across
    the street from the Finches. An avid gardener,
    she often spends time talking to the children,
    helping them to better understand Atticus and
    their community
  • Miss Rachel Crawford The neighbour gossip

8
CHARACTERS
  • Mrs Henry Lafayette Dubose A cantankerous,
    vile, elderly woman who teaches Jem and Scout a
    great lesson in bravery
  • Mrs Grace Merriweather A devout Methodist,
    wrote the Halloween pageant
  • Mrs Gertrude Farrow The second most devout
    lady in Maycomb belongs to the local Missionary
    Society
  • Tom Robinson The black man who is accused of
    raping and beating Mayella Ewell

9
CHARACTERS
  • Helen Robinson Toms wife
  • Link Deas Tom and Helens employer, he makes
    sure that Helen can safely pass by the Ewells
    after Tom is arrested
  • Bob Ewell The Ewell patriarch, spends his
    welfare cheques of bootleg alcohol, he claims to
    have witnessed Tom assaulting Mayella
  • Mayella Violet Ewell Toms 19-year-old accuser
  • Burris Ewell One of Bob Ewells children. He
    attends the first day of school.

10
CHARACTERS
  • Reverend Sykes The pastor at First Purchase
    African M.E. Church, helps the children
    understand the trial and finds them seats on the
    coloured balcony.
  • Judge John Taylor The judge at Toms trial,
    appoints Atticus
  • Mr Horace Gilmer The state attorney
    representing the Ewells
  • Sheriff Heck Tate Maycombs sheriff,
    accompanies Atticus with the mad dog and delivers
    the news about Bob Ewell at the end

11
CHARACTERS
  • Mr Braxton Bragg Underwood The owner, editor
    and printer of The Maycomb Tribune. Although he
    openly dislikes blacks, he defends Toms right to
    a fair trial
  • Dolphus Raymond Father to several biracial
    children, lives on the outskirts of town, when he
    comes to Maycomb he pretends to be drunk
  • Walter Cunningham Senior One of the men who to
    lynch Tom, one of Atticus clients, calls of the
    mob after talking to Scout

12
CHARACTERS
  • Walter Cunningham Junior One of Scouts
    classmates, Jem invites him to lunch after Scout
    accosts him in the playground
  • Miss Caroline Fisher New to teaching at Maycomb
    and its ways, Scouts first grade teacher
  • Cecil Jacobs A schoolmate of the children,
    scares them on the way to the pageant
  • Little Chuck Little One of Scouts classmates
    who stands up to Burris Ewell in defense of Miss
    Caroline

13
CHARACTERS
  • Miss Gates Scouts second grade teacher
  • Lula A parishioner at First Purchase African
    M.E. Church who is upset when Scout and Jem
    attend services there
  • Eula May The local telephone operator
  • Mr Avery A boarder at the house across from Mrs
    Duboses

14
PLOT SUMMARY
15
PART ONE
16
  • The book starts with adult Scout looking back at
    what happened it the three years from 1933-1936
  • They play their little games Tarzan, Dracula
  • Jem stays in his tree house for a day
  • We meet Dill
  • Scout starts school and, to the annoyance of Miss
    Caroline, she can read
  • Walter Cunningham hasnt got any lunch and when
    Miss Caroline offers him money and he doesnt
    take it she gets annoyed. Scout tries to explain
    by saying that he is a Cunningham and that they
    do not borrow anything that they cannot pay back,
    Miss Caroline gets annoyed

17
  • Scout attacks Walter in the playground and Jem
    tells Walter to eat at their house. Scout is
    openly appalled at his table manners and is
    apprehended by Cal
  • Burris Ewell is rude to Miss Caroline and Little
    Chuck Little defends her and he is sent home
  • They play the Boo Radley game, Jem touches the
    Radley porch, Scout rolls to the Radley Place in
    a tyre
  • They try and get Boo to come out, Jem loses his
    trousers and they are nicely folded for him when
    he returns for them

18
  • They find the knot-hole in tree with presents
    from Boo. They take them and then keep getting
    more. Mr Nathan Radley fills up the hole with
    concrete and says that the tree is dying, which
    Atticus later says to be incorrect
  • Jem and Scout are playing in the road when they
    see the mad dog. They tell Cal who calls Atticus.
    Atticus shots it in one shot.
  • The children would race to meet Atticus from work
    and pass Mrs Duboses house and receive verbal
    abuse from her. One day when she wasnt on the
    porch, Jem takes Scouts new baton and cuts the
    heads of her camellias and then breaks the baton

19
  • Jem has to go and read to her and then when she
    dies she leaves him one camellia. They learn a
    lesson about bravery from her because she was
    coming off a morphine addiction

20
PART TWO
21
  • Cal takes the children to the First Purchase
    African M.E. Church and Lula gets angry
  • Aunt Alexandra comes to stay
  • Tom Robinson is moved to the local jail and
    Atticus is warned of the lynch mob
  • He goes to protect him and the children follow
  • Scout recognises Walter Cunningham Senior and
    talks to him, he calls of the lynch mob
  • Summer 1935 the trial
  • Atticus establishes that Mayellas injuries were
    caused by a strong left hand, Tom cannot use his
    and Bob Ewell is ambidextrous

22
  • Tom is shown to be polite and honest, in contrast
    to Mayella and Bob
  • Jem thinks they won but Scout isnt sure
  • Jem and Scout are surprised, angry and upset that
    the white jury found Tom guilty
  • Bob Ewell seeks revenge upon Atticus for his
    humiliation in court
  • Atticus interrupts the Missionary Society meeting
    with news that Tom was shot whilst trying to
    escape, and asks Cal to accompany him to tell
    Helen
  • As the children return from the Halloween
    pageant, Bob Ewell attacks them with a knife

23
  • Boo Radley comes to their rescue, Jem is injured
    and carried back unconscious to the Finch house
    by Boo
  • Bob Ewell is found dead on top of his knife
  • The sheriff convinces Atticus to keep the detail
    of the incident quiet to protect Boo
  • Scout finally gets to see Boo and says he is
    really nice. Atticus replies, rounding off the
    story with message that he reiterates throughout
    Most people are, Scout, when you finally see
    them.

24
Quotes
  • You never really understand a person until you
    consider things from his point of view...until
    you climb into his skin and walk around it Pg.
    35
  • "Mocking birds don't do one thing but make music
    for us to enjoy. They don't eat peoples gardens,
    don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing
    but sing there hearts out for us. That why its a
    sin to kill a mocking bird." Page 96
  • "I certainly am. I Do my best to love
    everybody...I'm hard put, sometimes - baby, its
    never an insult to be called what somebody thinks
    is a bad name. It just shows you how poor that
    person is, its doesn't hurt you" Page 115

25
Quotes
  • "Tom Robinsons a colour man, Jem. No jury in this
    part of the world's going to say " We think your
    guilty but not very" on a charge like that. It
    was either a straight acquittal or nothing" Page
    225
  • "In our courts, when its a white mans word
    against a black mans word, the white man always
    wins. They're ugly but those are the facts of
    life" Page 226
  • "Atticus was right, One time he said you never
    really know a man until you stand in his shoes
    and walk around in them. Just standing on the
    Radley porch was enough" Page 285

26
Themes
  • Growing up/maturity
  • Prejudice/social inequality
  • Courage/bravery
  • Symbolism
  • Innocence
  • Education
  • You never really understand a person until you
    consider things from his point of view...until
    you climb into his skin and walk around it
  • It is a sin to kill a mockingbird
  • Law
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