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CHAPTER%204%20Social%20Structure

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Title: CHAPTER%204%20Social%20Structure


1
CHAPTER 4 Social Structure
  • Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations

2
Objectives
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Identify and describe the two major components of
    social structure.
  • Analyze how these two components of social
    structure affect human interaction.

3
Major Components of Social Structure
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Status
  • Role

4
Roles, Status, and Human Interaction
Section 1 Building Blocks of Social Structure
  • Peoples particular roles and statuses affect how
    they relate to one another.

5
Key terms
  • Social Structure Network of interrelated
    statuses and roles that guides human
    interactions.
  • Status Socially defined positions in a group in
    a society.
  • Role Behavior the rights and obligations
    expected of someone occupying a particular
    status.
  • Ascribed Status Status assigned according to
    standards that are beyond a persons control.
    Age, sex, family history and race are examples.

6
Key Terms
(continued)
  • Achieved Status Status acquired by an
    individual on the basis of some special skill,
    knowledge, or ability.
  • Master Status Status that plays the greatest
    role in shaping a persons life and determining
    his or her social identity.
  • Reciprocal Roles Corresponding roles that
    define the patterns of interactions between
    related statuses.
  • Role Expectations Socially determined behaviors
    expected of a person performing a role.

7
Key Terms
(continued)
  • Role Performance Actual behavior of a person
    performing a role.
  • Role Set different roles attached to a single
    status.
  • Role Conflict- Situation that occurs when
    fulfilling the expectation of one role makes it
    difficult to fulfill the expectations of another
    role.
  • Role Strain Situation that occurs when a person
    has difficulty meeting the expectations of a
    single role.

8
putting out fires, saving lives, wearing a uniform
voluntarily puts self in danger but has loved
ones who need him or her
fire fighter
mother
work fatigue and long shifts make household tasks
and interactions difficult
providing food and shelter, nurturing family,
disciplining children
P.T.A. president
running meetings, recruiting new members,
planning activities
has trouble getting members to attend and follow
through on promises
9
Objectives
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Identify the most common types of social
    interaction.
  • Distinguish between types of interactions that
    stabilize social structure and those that can
    disrupt it.

10
Common Types of Social Interaction
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Exchange interacting in an effort to receive a
    reward or a return for ones actions
  • Competition two or more people or groups in
    opposition to achieve a goal that only one can
    attain
  • Conflict the deliberate attempt to control a
    person by force, to oppose someone else, or to
    harm another person

11
Common Types of Social Interaction
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
(continued)
  • Cooperation two or more people or groups
    working together to achieve a goal that will
    benefit more than one of them
  • Accommodation a state of balance between
    cooperation and conflict

12
  • Social Institution System of statuses, roles,
    values, and norms that is organized to satisfy
    one or more of the basic needs of society.
  • Exchange Theory Theory that holds that people
    are motivated by self-interests in their
    interactions
  • Reciprocity Idea that if you do something for
    someone, they owe you something in return.
  • Georg Simmel Sociologist Identified four
    sources of conflict.
  • A. War B. Disagreement with in groups
    C.
    Legal Disputes D. Clashes over Ideology

13
Interactions That Stabilize and Disrupt
Section 2 Types of Social Interaction
  • Competition and Conflict disrupt social
    stability
  • Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation
    stabilize social stability

14
Objectives
Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Identify and describe the types of societies that
    exist in the world today.
  • Explain the roles individuals play in these
    models of group systems.

15
Types of Societies
Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Preindustrial food production is the main
    economic activity and can be subdivided according
    to the level of technology and the method of
    producing food
  • Industrial emphasis shifts from the production
    of food to the production of manufactured goods
    made possible by changes in production methods
  • Postindustrial much of the economy is involved
    in providing information and services

16
Roles of Individuals
Section 3 Types of Societies
Section 3 Types of Societies
  • Roles related to
  • Leadership
  • Family
  • Work

17
Section 3 Types of Societies
agricultural
hunting and gathering pastoral
horticultural mechanical solidarity
manufacturing
urban technology
organic solidarity
information provision of services
18
Section 3 Types of Societies
Group Set of two or more people who interact on
the basis of shared expectations and who possess
some degree of common identity. Preindustrial
Society - Type of societies in which food
productions- carried out through the use of human
and animal labor is the main economic
activity. Subsistence Strategies Ways in which
a society uses technology to provide for the
needs of its members. Hunting and Gathering
Societies Type of society characterized by the
daily collection of wild plants and the hunting
of wild animals as the main form of subsistence.
19
Section 3 Types of Societies
Pastoral Society Type of society characterized
by a reliance on domesticated herd animals as the
main form of subsistence. Horticultural Society
Type of society characterized by a reliance on
vegetables grown in garden plants as the main
form of subsistence. Agricultural Society Type
of society characterized by the use of draft
animals and plows in the tilling of
fields. Industrial Societies Type of Society in
which the mechanized production of goods is the
main economic activity.
20
Section 3 Types of Societies
Postindustrial Society Type of society in which
economic activities centers on the production of
information and provision of services. Division
of Labor Specialization by individuals or
groups in the performance of specific economic
activities. Barter Practice of exchanging one
good for another. Urbanization Concentration of
the population in cities.
21
Section 3 Types of Societies
Mechanical Solidarity Close-knit-social
relationships common in Preindustrial societies
that result when a small group of people share
values and perform the same task. (San,
Arapesh) Organic Solidarity Impersonal social
relationships, common in Industrial societies
that arise with increased job specialization. Geme
inschaft Societies in which most members know
one another, relationships are close, and
activities center on the family and the
community. Gesellschaft Societies in which
social relationships are based upon need rather
than on emotions, relationships are impersonal
and temporary and individual goals are more
important than group goals.
22
Objectives
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Summarize the major features of primary and
    secondary groups.
  • Identify the purposes that groups fulfill.

23
Features of Primary Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Interact over a long period of time on a direct
    and personal basis
  • Entire self of the individual is taken into
    account
  • Relationships are intimate and face-to-face

24
Features of Secondary Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
  • Involve a reaction to only a part of the
    individuals self
  • Casual and limited to personal involvement

25
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26
Purposes of Groups
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Select leaders people that influence the
    attitudes and opinions of others
  • Define their boundaries so that members can
    tell who belongs and who does not
  • Set goals, assign tasks, and make decisions
  • Control their members behavior if members
    violate groups norms, the group cannot survive
    long

27
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Aggregate Groups of people gathered in the same
    place at the same time who lack organization or
    lasting patterns of interactions.
  • Social Category Group of people who share a
    common trait or status.
  • Dyad Group with two members.
  • Triad Three- person group.
  • Small Group Group with few enough numbers that
    everyone is able to interact on a face to face
    basis

28
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Formal Group A group in which the structure,
    goals, and activities of the group are clearly
    defined.
  • Informal Group A group in which there is no
    official structure or established rules of
    conduct.
  • Primary Group Small group of people who
    interact over a relatively long period of time on
    a direct and personal basis.
  • Secondary Group Group in which interaction is
    impersonal and temporary in nature.

29
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Reference Group Any group with whom individuals
    identify and whos attitudes and values they
    often adopt.
  • In-Group Group that an individual belongs to
    and identifies with.
  • Out-Group Any group that an individual does not
    belong to or identify with.
  • E-Community A community of people who interact
    through the internet or other electronic
    communications.
  • Social Network Web relationship that is formed
    by the sum total of an individual's interactions
    with other people.

30
Section 4 Groups Within Society
  • Leaders People who influence the attitudes and
    opinions of others.
  • Instrumental Leaders Leaders who are task-
    oriented.
  • Expressive Leaders Leaders who are emotion-
    oriented

31
Objectives
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Explain how bureaucracies are structured.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of bureaucracies.

32
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33
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Formal Organization Large, complex secondary
    group that has been established to achieve
    specific goals. (Examples Schools, businesses,
    political and religious and youth organizations,
    and labor unions)
  • Bureaucracy Ranked authority structure that
    operates according to specific rules and
    procedures.
  • Rationality The process of subjecting every
    feature of human behavior to calculations,
    measurement, and control.
  • Voluntary Association Non profit association
    formed to pursue some common interest.
  • Iron Law of Oligarchy Tendency of organizations
    to become increasingly dominated by small groups
    of people.

34
Webers Model
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Division of Labor- Work is divided among
    specialist in various positions. Each specialist
    is expected to perform specific duties.
  • Ranking of Authority- There are clear cut lines
    of responsibility, and each individual is
    responsible to a supervisor at a higher level.
  • Employment based on formal qualifications-
    Specific qualifications are required for each
    job. Individuals are hired based upon tests,
    education or previous experience. (In a
    bureaucracy, the job not the job holder is
    important. Therefore everybody is replaceable).

35
Webers Model
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
(continued)
  • Rules and regulations- There are objective rules,
    regulations, and routine procedures that identify
    the exact responsibilities and authority of each
    person on staff.
  • Specific lines of promotion and advancement- It
    is assumed that employees expect a career with
    the organization. Thus there are clear-cut lines
    of promotion and advancement. Among the rewards
    for remaining with the organization are job
    security and seniority.

36
(CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.)
37
Effectiveness of Bureaucracies
Section 5 The Structure of Formal Organizations
  • Efficient at coordinating large numbers of
    people, defining tasks and rewards
  • Provides stability
  • Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and
    result in oligarchies
  • In some instances, rewards incompetence and
    expands uncontrollably

38
CHAPTER 4
Chapter Wrap-Up
1. How can a persons status differ from his or
her role? 2. How does role conflict affect groups
and individuals? How can it be resolved? 3. What
are the five most common forms of interaction
recognized by sociologists? 4. Identify and
describe the three broad categories of societies
used by sociologists. 5. How do the roles of
group members differ between primary and
secondary groups? 6. What, according to Max
Webers model, are the major characteristics of a
bureaucracy? 7. What weaknesses influence the
effectiveness of bureaucracies?
39
CHAPTER 4
Essay Questions
  • Define bureaucracy, identify the five
    characteristics of a bureaucracy, and then
    explain which of the five characteristics is most
    related to The Peter Principle.
  • 2. Identify six types of societies and describe
    the subsistence strategy of each society.
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