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Ottawa Environmental Health Clinic

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Title: Ottawa Environmental Health Clinic


1
Ottawa Environmental Health Clinic
Chemical Exposure and Pesticides
2
Pesticide Injuries in Canada
  • VERY FEW DOCTORS ARE ADEQUATELY TRAINED TO
    DETECT AND TREAT PESTICIDE POISONING
  • BECAUSE SYMPTOMS OVERLAP WITH MANY OTHER
    ILLNESSES, PESTICIDE POISONING IS OFTEN
    MISDIAGNOSED

3
Chemical Sensitivities and Pesticides
  • In a survey of 6,800 people claiming to be
    chemically sensitive
  • 80 asserted they knew when, where, with what,
    and how they were made ill.
  • Of the 80, sixty percent blamed pesticides.

Source Nicholas Ashford, Ph.S, and Claudia S
Miller, M.S. Chemical Exposures-Low Levels,
High Stakes. Van Nostrant Reinhold, New York
1991
4
Chemical Sensitivities and Pesticides
  • Dursban insecticide warning label
  • Caution, repeated exposure to cholinesterase
    inhibitors may without warning cause prolonged
    susceptibility to very small doses of any
    cholinesterase inhibitor
  • So very small doses
  • If this is not chemical sensitivity,
    what is?

Source Allan D. Lieberman, M.D. An Exposure to
Environmental Medicine. Winter 2003, The
Human Ecologist.
5
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6
Multiple Chemical Sensitivities (MCS)
  • Sept. 2003 study published in Environmental
    Health Perspectives (U.S. Department of Health
    and Human Services) found
  • 12.6 of the population suffers from MCS
  • 1.8 of population lost job as result of MCS

Source Environmental Health Perspectives More
than 12 of Population Reports Extreme
Sensitivity to Low Levels of Common Chemicals .
September 11, 2003. http//ehp.niehs.nih.gov/pre
ss/12pop.html
7
Pathways to Pesticide Exposure
8
Global Distribution of Toxins
Can circulate via our air, water and soil --
Result Grasshopper Effect
Source Arctic Assessment and Monitoring
Programme (AMAP), 1997 www.grida.no/amap
9
Absorption of Pesticides
  • Forearm 1
  • Scalp 3.7
  • Forehead 4.2
  • Ear canal 5.4
  • Abdomen 2.1
  • Scrotal area 11.8
  • Palm 1.3
  • Ball of foot 1.6

10
Chemical Exposure Immune System
  • A rapid increase in TA1 (CD3, CD26) and T3
    positive (CD3) cells can be a very sensitive
    indicator of chemical exposure.
  • Immune system testing and testing for
    auto-immunity should be routine in all patents
    after toxic exposure.
  • Antibodies to certain chemicals can also be
    looked for.
  • Check serum Cholinesterase levels (if an OP
    pesticide is suspected).

Source Defining Chemical Injury A Diagnostic
Protocol and Profile of Chemically Injured
Civilians, Industrial Workers and Gulf War by G.
Heuser, M.D.,Ph.D. , P. Axelrod and S. Heuser,
M.A. http//www.iicph.org/docs/ipph_Defining_Chem
ical_Injury.htm
11
Pesticide Poisoning Symptoms
  • Pesticides can irritate
  • EYES NOSE THROAT SKIN
  • NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • burning, stinging,
  • itches, rashes, and blistering of the skin
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and cramping
  • wheezing and coughing
  • headache, dizziness and general malaise

Source Pesticides and Human Health A Resource
for Health Care Professionals. Physicians for
Social Responsibility and Californians for
Pesticide Reform. P. 7 http//www.psrla.org/pes
thealth.htm
12
Pesticides and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)
  • Both organophosphate and chlorinated pesticide
    (insecticides) exposure have been associated with
    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.
  • Studies
  • Behan, Peter O. Chronic fatigue syndrome as a
    delayed reaction to chronic low-dose
    organophosphate exposure. J Nutr Environ Med
    19966341-350.
  • Dunstan RHK, Donohoe M, Taylor W, et al. A
    preliminary investigation of chlorinated
    hydrocarbons and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med J
    Aust 1995163294-297.

13
Pesticides and Asthma
  • Some pesticides are sensitizers to the lung
  • - Captafol, sulfur, Pyrethrins and pyrethroid
  • EVEN THE FORMULANTS (inerts) are of concern
  • petroleum distillates Xylene, Toluene etc.
  • Formulants often make up gt98 of total mixture
  • The PMRA lists 1000s of formulants including
    peanut oil, pine oil (dangerous allergens) put in
    pesticide mixtures
  • Johanne Gelinas (Canadian Env. Sustainability
    Dev. Commissioner) remarked How safe are
    pesticides? The Fed. Govt should be able to
    answer that question, but it cant.

Source A. Senthilselvan, H.H. McDuffie, and
J.A. Dosman, Association of asthma with use of
pesticides, Am Rev Respir Dis 146 (1992)
88487. S.A. Box and M.R. Lee. A systemic
reaction following exposure to a pyrethroid
insecticide, Hum Exp Toxicol 15 (1996)5 38990.
14
Pesticides Associated with Allergic Contact
Dermatitis
Acephate Malathion Benomyl Mancozeb Captan
Maneb Carbaryl Norflurazon Chlorothalonil
Omethoate Chlorpyrifos PCNB DCNA Permethrin
Diazinon Pyrethrum Dienochlor Sulfur
Dimethoate Thiram Ethoxyquin Vinclozolin
Folpet Zineb Fluvalinate Ziram
Fenbutatin-oxide Sources OMalley 1997,
Haenen 1996, Leow 1996
15
OP Symptoms
  • Abdominal pain, nausea, rhinorrhea (runny nose)
  • Dizziness, headache, sleepiness, fatigue
  • Gait disturbance, limb numbness, or unusual
    sensations in extremities
  • Limb pain, or weakness
  • J Occup Environ Med 2003 Feb 45(2)118-22

16
Human Effects of Pesticides
Skin blisters and rashes from patients who had
pesticide poisoning
17
Human Effects of Pesticides
Skin blisters and rashes from patients who had
pesticide poisoning
18
OP (Dursban) Exposure
  • SPECT Scan of a 65 year old male exposed to
    Dursban (chlorpyrifos)
  • Became extremely impaired in functions of memory
    cognitive abilities, and energy

19
The Gazette, June 2 1996
  • Neuroscientists believe there is an interference
    in the brain during the critical months of fetal
    development
  • Causes have been speculated from a faulty genetic
    mechanism to environmental insults.

20
Neural Tube defects
21
Dr. Elizabeth Guillette Study Pesticides in Mexico
22
Pesticides and Brain cancer in Children
  • Children with brain cancer are more than twice
    as likely to have been exposed to pesticides at
    home than are healthy children.
  • The incidence of childhood brain cancer has
    increased 30 in the past 20 years.

Sources W.T. Sanderson, G. Talaska, D. Zaebst,
et al., Pesticide prioritization for a brain
cancer case-control study, Env Rsrch 74 (1997)
13344. S.H. Zahm, M.H. Ward, and A. Blair,
Pesticides and cancer, Occup Med (Philadelphia)
12 (1997) 36570. S.H. Zahm and M.H. Ward,
Pesticides and childhood cancer, Env Hlth Persp
106 (1998)3 893908.
23
Ontario College of Family Physicians Review on
Pesticides (April 2004)
  • IN MONTREAL a study on leukemia showed
  • -that over 40 of children in the Montreal area
    had a specific genetic vulnerability to the
    effects of pesticides
  • -due to having a genetic makeup that caused them
    to metabolize pesticides slowly.

Source Infante-Rivard C, Labuda D, Krajinovic M,
Sinnett D. Risk of childhood leukemia associated
with exposure to pesticides and with gene
polymorphisms comment. Epidemiology
199910481487. http//www.ocfp.on.ca
24
Is 2,4-d Harmful To Humans?
  • Long-term exposure can cause damage to the
    nervous system, kidneys and liver.
  • In MINNESOTA, farming regions (1996)
  • areas with high 2,4-d use had higher incidence
    of birth defects compared with regions that had
    low use of 2,4-d
  • In 2005, California State lists the herbicide
    2,4-D and related compounds as being
    developmental toxicants

Source Garry VF, Schreinemachers D, Harkins M,
Griffith J. Pesticide appliers, biocides, and
birth defects in rural Minnesota. Environ Health
Perspectives 1996104(4)394-9. USEPA. Consumer
factsheet on 2,4-D. Available at
http//www.epa.gov/safewater/dwh/c-soc/24-d.html.
http//www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/CRNR_notices/admin
_listing/intent_to_list/NOILPkg5e.html
25
Is 2,4-d Harmful To Humans?
  • 2,4-d can be tracked from lawns into homes
  • Residues found in carpets, on surfaces, and
    indoor air.
  • A simulation study calculated that it would be
    expected to persist in carpet dust up to one year
    after a lawn application.

Souces Nishioka MG et al. Measuring transport
of lawn-applied herbicide acids from turf to
home correlation of dislodgeable 2,4 D turf
residues with carpet dust and carpet surface
residues, Environmental Science Technology
1996303313-3320. Nishioka M, Lewis R,
Brinkman M, et al. Distribution of 2,4-D in air
and on surfaces inside residences after lawn
applications comparing exposure estimates from
various media for young children. Environ Health
Perspect 2001 Nov109(11)1185-91.
26
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27
Pesticides vs Human Endocrine System
  • Women often complain of loss of sex drive and of
    irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Men frequently complain of loss of libido and
    potency.

Sources Colborn et al., 1997 Barnard and
Heuser, 1998. http//www.iicph.org/docs/ipph_Defi
ning_Chemical_Injury.htm
28
Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides
Sources L. Keith, Environmental endocrine
disruptors New York Wiley Interscience, 1997)
J. Liebman, Rising toxic tide (San Francisco
Pesticide Action Network/Californians for
Pesticide Reform, 1997) Illinois EPA, Report on
endocrine disrupting chemicals (Illinois
EPA,1997) T. Colborn, D. Dumanoski, and J.P.
Myers, Our stolen future (New York Penguin
Books, 1996), 253 C.M. Benbrook, Growing doubt
A primer on pesticides identified as endocrine
disruptors and/or reproductive Toxicants (The
National Campaign for Pesticide Policy Reform,
September 1996).
29
Is 2,4-d Harmful To Pets?
  • April 2004 Purdue University Study
  • Concluded
  • Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns and gardens
    increases the risk of bladder cancer in Scottish
    terriers.
  • "The risk of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)
    was found to be between four and seven times more
    likely in exposed animals."

Souces Lawrence T. Glickman, Malathi Raghavan,
Deborah W. Knapp, Patty L. Bonney and Marcia H.
Dawson Herbicide Exposure and the Risk of
Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary
Bladder in Scottish Terrier Dogs Am Vet Med Assoc
20042412901297
30
Facts on chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)
  • Do not apply on windy days or when wind is
    blowing toward desirable plants
  • May remain active in the soil, 1 to 6 weeks
  • Over time will bind to organic matter in soil and
    is eventually degraded by the microbes in the
    soil
  • Will degrade to ½ concentration in days

31
Facts on 2,4-D
  • In water the 2,4-D and its oil-soluble amine
    salt and esther do not dissolve well
  • May appear in ground water in small amounts,
    dissipate rapidly in moving water but is still
    detected in bogs/swamps after 6 months

32
Facts on 2,4-D
  • 2,4-D also includes inert formulants some of
    which are suspected of being highly toxic by the
    International Agency for Research on Cancer
    (IARC). Some forms of 2,4-D are more toxic than
    others hence unequal study results.
  • What the lawn care industry doesn't tell us is
    that Health Canada measures exposures to one
    chemical at a time in rats (!) and doesn't
    account for the cumulative and comprehensive
    effect of the chemical "soup" to which children
    are already exposed in the womb.

33
Toxic Legacy (EPA information)
  • 2,4-D can cause peripheral neuropathy, liver,
    kidney, digestive, muscular and nervous system
    damage.
  • Symptoms include weakness, fatigue, headache,
    dizziness, loss of appetite, nausea, eye and
    nasal irritation, skin irritation, hypertension
    and slowed heart rate
  • Even with a ½ life of 13 to 39 hours so much is
    used it is almost always in our body.

34
Where is 2,4-d not allowed?
  • Countries that restrict 2,4-d use
  • - Kuwait,
  • -Norway,
  • -Denmark,
  • -Sweden,
  • -Belize (no on livestock,
    crops), and -Korea
    (no aerial spraying on forage crops)
  • Quebecs Pesticide Code disallows 2,4-d (and
    others) for cosmetic use on lawns.
  • Currently Toronto, Vancouver, Halifax, Montreal,
    and 96 other Canadian municipalities have now
    implemented bans on the cosmetic use of pesticides

Sources Risks From Lawn-Care Pesticides
Including Inadequate Packaging and Labeling
Environment Human Health, Inc.
www.ehhi.org Quebec Pesticide Code
http//www.menv.gouv.qc.ca/pesticides/permis-en/co
de-gestion-en/ Municipal bylaw statistics
available at www.healthyottawa.ca
35
The latest insecticide Merit
  • Merit (Imidacloprid) has recently replaced
    insecticides Dursban and Diazinon as a grub
    killer
  • Imidacloprid is a chlorinated nicotine compound
    that affects the nervous system
  • Imidacloprid degrades into toxic, persistent,
    carcinogenic
  • 2-chloro pyridine
  • Inert ingredients / contaminants of "Merit" have
    been reported to include the carcinogens
    naphthalene and crystalline silica

Source www.healthyottawa.ca (Fact Sheets)
36
Pyrethrins / Pyrethroids
  • Used as an insecticide
  • Derived from chrysanthemum
  • Mixed with solvents
  • Widely used in the home
  • Can cause nausea, dizziness, headache, cough
  • Exerts toxic effect by interfering with nerve
    cell function, alters sodium channels in cell
    membranes. Susceptible people can have allergic
    responses including death
  • May permanently alter behavior in animals

37
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38
Health Cycle
39
Alternatives
  • Instead of using dangerous synthetic pesticides,
    try
  • Corn gluten and/or vinegar for weed control
  • Nematodes for grub control
  • Insecticidal Soaps
  • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a bacteria, kills
    insects. Bt can be purchased in Quebec as
    DipelR,ThuricideR and EnvirobacR
  • Diatomaceous earth - use insect killing
    variety. Brand names Chemfree / Insectigone
  • Borax mixed with granulated sugar for indoor
    insect control
  • Natural predators such as ladybugs

40
Books of Interest
Pesticides Making the Right Choice For the
Protection of Health and the Environment Written
by the Standing Committee on Environment and
Sustainable Development. House of Commons,
Canada. May 2000
41
Books of Interest
Download from www.ehhi.org
A well referenced document with citations to peer
reviewed literature
42
Books of Interest
Free Download from http//www.psrla.org/pesthealt
h.htm
Pesticides and Human Health is an essential
resource for physicians and other health
providers for understanding the chronic health
impacts of pesticides.
43
Books of Interest
Free Download at http//www.panna.org
44
Books of Interest
Ontario College of Family Physicians Study Free
Download at http//www.ocfp.on.ca
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