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Chemical

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Chapter 3 Chemical & Physical Feature of the Ocean Atom The smallest particle an element can be divided into & maintain properties Building block of matter Molecule A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemical


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Chapter 3
  • Chemical Physical Feature of the Ocean

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Atom
  • The smallest particle an element can be divided
    into maintain properties
  • Building block of matter

4
Molecule
  • A group of atoms chemically combined that can
    exist by itself
  • CO2

5
Ion
  • Charged particle
  • Cl-1

6
Polyatomic Ion
  • A group of atoms chemically combined that
    together have a charge
  • CO3-2

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Organic Compounds
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Polymers
  • large complex organic compounds linked by
    covalent bonds

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3 forms
  • Complex carbohydrates contain two or more
    monomers of simple sugars linked together.
  • Proteins are formed by linking monomers of amino
    acids together.
  • Nucleic acids are made of sequences of
    nucleotides linked together.

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Genes
  • specific sequences of nucleotides in a DNA
    molecule

11
Chromosomes
  • combinations of genes that make a single DNA
    molecule, plus some proteins

12
Genome
  • the complete sequence of DNA

13
Inorganic Compounds
  • All compounds without the combination of carbon
    atoms and other elements

14
Matter exists in four states
  1. solid,
  2. liquid,
  3. Gaseous
  4. a fourth state known as plasma.

15
Matter and resources usefulness,
  1. 1. High-quality concentrated and highly
    useful-found near the Earths surface.
  2. 2. Low-quality dilute and found deep underground
    and/or dispersed in air or water.

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3-6 Nuclear Changes
  • Matter can undergo a change known as a nuclear
    change.
  • Three types of nuclear change
  • radioactive decay,
  • nuclear fission,
  • nuclear fusion.

17
Radioactive decay
  • Radioactive isotopes emit high-energy radiation
    until the original unstable isotope is changed
    into a stable isotope

18
Nuclear fusion
  1. Combining of two light element isotopes ez(H)
  2. Occurs at extremely high temperatures.
  3. Releases more energy than fission.
  4. It is still in the laboratory stage after 50
    years of research.

19
Energy
  • The capacity to do work and transfer heat it
    moves matter.

20
Kinetic energy
  • has mass and speed - wind and electricity

21
Potential energy
  • stored energy - match,.

22
Energy changes
  • Potential E. becomes kinetic E. dropping an
    egg.

23
Heat
  • The total kinetic energy of all moving atoms,
    ions, or molecules in a substance.
  • 3 forms
  • convection,
  • conduction, and
  • radiation.

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Temperature is the average speed of motion of
atoms,.
25
Quality of energy.
  • High energy is concentrated loads of work.
  • 2. Low energy is dispersed -little work

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Energy Laws
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The First Law of Thermodynamics
  • 1. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
  • 2. Energy may be converted from to another.

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The Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • A.. Usable energy and quality decreases when
    changed from one form to another.
  • heat is often produced and lost.
  • In living systems, solar energy is changed to
    chemical energy, then to mechanical energy
  • High-quality energy cannot be recycled/reused

29
Energy efficiency
  • A. is very poorabout 16 of energy produces
    useful work.
  • Forty-one percent is unavoidable waste energy,
  • forty-three percent is unnecessarily wasted
    energy.
  • B. A change in habits can further reduce this
    waste.

30
Matter and Energy Laws and Environmental Problems
  • A. Resource use automatically adds some waste
    heat/waste matter to the environment.
  • B. Advanced industrialized countries have high
    waste economies.
  • Resources flow into planetary sinks (air, water,
    soil, organisms) with accumulation to harmful
    levels.
  • 2.Eventually consumption will exceed capacity of
    the environment to dilute/degrade wastes.

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  • C. Recycling/reusing more of Earths matter
    resources slows depletion.
  • D. It just slow the process and buys some time
    but doesnt stop the impact.
  • E. Shifting to a more sustainable economy is
    the best long-term solution

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