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The Living World: Ecosystems (Chapter 10)

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Title: The Living World: Ecosystems (Chapter 10)


1
The Living WorldEcosystems (Chapter 10)
2
Ecosystem A community of living organisms
interacting with one another and with the
nonliving components of the environment they
inhabit.
1
ST EST AST
3
Levels of Ecological Organization
Level 1 Individual ( A Moose)
Level 2 Population (Herd of Moose)
Level 3 Community (Herd Birds Squirrels etc
Level 4 Ecosystem Living nonliving components in the environment
4
Examples of Ecosystems
  • Forest
  • Lake
  • Aquarium
  • Island

5
Interactions within Ecosystems
1 .1
  • Trophic Relationships The feeding connections
    among the living organisms in an ecosystem (a
    food chain)

ST EST AST
6
Simple food chain
7
More realistic food web
8
Producers autotrophic (self nourish) organisms
with the ability to create organic matter from
inorganic matter in an ecosystem through
photosynthesis. Plants use sunlight to make
sugars for energy.
Plants
Phytoplankton (algae)
9
Inorganic vs. organic matter
Inorganic matter Matter that is not necessarily produced by living organisms. (e.g. Water, mineral salts, carbon dioxide)
Organic matter Matter that enters into the composition of living organisms and that is usually created by them. (e.g. proteins, carbohydrates, fats)
10
Consumers heterotrophic (other nourishment)
organisms that feed on other living organisms
and/or their products such as eggs, fruit etc.
11
Consumers
  • First order (or primary) consumers feed on
    producers (eg a deer eats grass, birds eat
    seeds). They are herbivores.
  • Second order consumers feed on first order
    consumers (eg a wolf eats a deer, a cat eats a
    bird). They are carnivores.
  • Third order consumers feed on second order
    consumers
  • Fourth order consumers feed on third order
    consumers etc. etc.

12
Omnivores
  • Consumers that eat several orders at once. (eg
    bears eat berries and fish, humans eat grain and
    meat).

13
Decomposers organisms that feed on the waste
and remains of other living organisms.
  • Decomposers are detritivores which are
    heterotrophs that can be eaten by consumers
  • Feed on detritus which is dead organic matter
    such as fallen leaves, dead wood, animal remains,
    etc
  • Examples are
  • worms, some bacteria, certain insects such as
    the sow bug

14
Trophic Network Food Web
15
Ecosystem Dynamics
1 .2
  • Material and Energy Flow the exchange of matter
    and energy between the living organisms in an
    ecosystem and between those organisms and their
    environment.
  • Law of conservation of Mass
  • nothing is loss and
  • nothing is created
  • Matter is transformed

ST EST AST
16
Material Flow and Chemical Recycling
  • Chemical recycling is a natural phenomenon by
    which decomposers make inorganic matter available
    in an ecosystem by breaking down organic matter.

17
Chemical Recycling
Decomposers
Detritus
Consumers
Producers
Flow of inorganic matter
Environment
Flow of organic matter
18
Energy Flow the sun is the main source of energy
for ecosystems
Thermal energy lost in the environment
Radiation energy
Secondary Consumer
Primary Consumer
Producer
19
Biomass and Primary Productivity in Ecosystems
1 .3
  • Biomass the total mass of organic matter in an
    ecosystem at any given time.

ST EST AST
20
  • Primary productivity of an ecosystem is the
    amount of new biomass generated by its producers
  • Factors that affect primary productivity are
  • Light (radiation energy) from the sun
  • Amount of water (necessary for photosynthesis)
  • Essential nutrients (carbon, nitrogen,
    phosphorus, and potassium)
  • Temperature weather promotes growth of
    producers

21
Disturbances
2
  • A disturbance is an event that damages an
    ecosystem. It can lead to the elimination of
    organisms and alter the availability of
    resources.
  • E.g. flooding, storms, oil spills, volcanic
    eruptions

ST EST AST
22
Natural Disturbances
2.1
  • Events triggered by environmental phenomena
    rather than humans but can be very damaging
    nonetheless. (storm churning waters surface
    subsurface waters to mix)
  • E.g. volcanic eruptions, drought, flood, forest
    fires, frost, freeze rain heat waves

ST EST AST
23
2.2
Human Disturbances
Humans and their actions are a major threat to
ecosystems from individual acts like littering to
large scale projects. E.g. logging, mining, oil
spills, housing projects, industries,
pollution, etc.
ST EST AST
24
(No Transcript)
25
Ecological Succession
2.3
  • Ecological succession the series of changes
    that occur in an ecosystem after a disturbance
    and that continue until the balance of the
    ecosystem is restored.

ST EST AST
26
A forest recovering after acid rain
27
Ecological Footprints
2.4
  • Ecological footprints are estimates of the
    surface area individual humans or populations
    require to obtain the resources for satisfying
    all their needs and to ensure the disposal of
    their waste.

Land water used to produce goods
Land water used to dispose of waste
Ecological Footprint
Land water occupied



EST
28
Ecological Carrying Capacity
29
3
  • Ecotoxicology is the study of the ecological
    consequences of polluting the environment
    with various substances and radiation, released
    by human activity.

EST SE
30
Contaminants is any type of substance or
radiation that is likely to cause harm to one or
more ecosystems.
3.1
Class of contaminants Examples
Inorganic Lead, arsenic, mercury, nitrogen oxides, phosphorus
Organic Insecticides, pesticides, benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
Microbial Viruses and harmful bacteria
Radioactive Uranium, plutonium, radon
EST SE
31
Toxicity
  • Toxicity of each contaminant depends of the
    following three factors
  • Concentration more concentrated higher the risk
  • Type of organism it comes in contact with
  • Length of exposure

32
  • Toxicity threshold the level of concentration
    above which a contaminant causes one or more
    harmful effects in an organism
  • LD50 indicator used to determine toxicity dose
    that is lethal to 50 of individuals

33
Bioaccumulation and Bioconcentration of
Contaminants
3.2
  • Bioaccumulation the tendency among certain
    contaminants to accumulate over time in the
    tissues of living organisms.

EST SE
34
  • Bioconcentration a phenomenon by which the
    concentration of a contaminant in the tissues of
    living organisms tends to increase with each
    trophic level.

35
Biotechnology
4
  • Biodegradation the breaking down of organic
    matter into inorganic matter by microorganisms

EST
36
  • Bioremediation a biotechnology for cleaning up
    a polluted site, using microorganisms that
    decompose the contaminants.

37
  • Phytoremediation a biotechnology that uses
    plants or algae to eliminate contaminants from a
    site.

38
Wastewater Treatment
  • Wastewater water that is discharged after
    household or industrial use and that is polluted
    as a result of human activities.
  • Wastewater can contain
  • Sand or other particles
  • Pathogens
  • Nutrients that stimulate the excessive growth of
    algae
  • Chemicals

39
  • Two main methods for treating wastewater are
  • Septic Tanks and Wastewater Treatment plants

40
Checkup
  • Pg 342 1-15, A and C ST and AST
  • Pg 342 1-26, A - C EST
  • Pg 342 18-23, B SE
  • Eco-sketch Complex Task (ST AST)
  • Pg 323 Vermicomposting from cafeteria (optional)

41
References
  • Observatory the Environment Cyr, Forget,
    Verreault 2009, ERPI
  • Google Images
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