Theories of Motivation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Theories of Motivation PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 79ae59-ODY4M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Theories of Motivation

Description:

Theories of Motivation An Overview of Some of the Popular Management Theorists Equity Theory Equity theory is not a new one but focuses on how individuals perceive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:79
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: Dennis501
Learn more at: http://muradsweb.weebly.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Theories of Motivation


1
Theories of Motivation
An Overview of Some of the Popular Management
Theorists
2
Alderfers ERG Theory
  • Clayton P Alderfer proposed a hierarchy
    involving three sets of needs
  • Existence needs satisfied by such factors as
    food, air, water, pay, and working conditions.
  • Relatedness needs satisfied by meaningful social
    and interpersonal relationships.
  • Growth needs satisfied by an individual making
    creative or productive contributions.
  • Tested by Thematic Apperception Test

ERG Theory
3
ERG Theory Relationships Among Frustration,
Importance, and Satisfaction of Needs
Frustration of growth needs
Importance of growth needs
Satisfaction of growth needs
Frustration of relatedness needs
Importance of relatedness needs
Satisfaction of relatedness needs
Frustration of existence needs
Importance of existence needs
Satisfaction of existence needs
4
Chris Argyris (1923 -
  • Influenced by the humanist approach of Abraham
    Maslow and the socio-technical process of E.
    Wight Bakke.
  • Indicated his feelings about how organizations
    neglected human needs.
  • If treated like a child one will behave like a
    child result is organizational mediocrity

Chris Argyris
Maturity Immaturity Continuum
5
Chris Argyris Personality vs. Organization
  • Certain organizational practices, such as the
    division of labor, interfere with the development
    of healthy human personalities.
  • These practices promote immature, not mature
    behavior.
  • In an attempt to self-actualize, individuals run
    into the obstacles posed by formal organizations.
  • The result is defensive behaviors, with
    management reacting by becoming more autocratic
    or by turning to sugar-coated human relations.

6
Chris Argyris
7
Albert Bandura
  • Albert Bandura proposed a social cognitive
    theory (social learning theory self-efficacy
    theory) which refers to an individuals belief
    that they are capable of performing a task.
  • Four ways self efficacy can be increased
  • Enactive mastery if youve performed task in
    the past, you can do it again
  • Vicarious modeling you become more confident
    because you see someone else do the task
  • Verbal persuasion you become more confident
    because someone convinces you that you have the
    skills necessary to perform task
  • Arousal if you get psyched up then you
    perform better

Social Learning Self-efficacy Social Cognitive
8
Abraham Maslow
Maslow defined human needs as Physiological
the need for food, drink, shelter, and relief
from pain. Safety and security the need for
freedom from threat the security from
threatening events or surroundings. Belongingness,
social, and love the need for friendship,
affiliation, interaction, and love. Esteem the
need for self-esteem and for respect from
others. Self-actualization the need to fulfill
oneself by maximizing the use of abilities,
skills, and potential
Hierarchy of Needs
9
Maslows Need Hierarchy
  • Maslows theory assumes that a person attempts to
    satisfy the more basic needs before directing
    behavior toward satisfying upper-level needs.
  • Lower-order needs must be satisfied before a
    higher-order need begins to control a persons
    behavior.
  • A satisfied need ceases to motivate.

10
Need Hierarchy
11
David McClelland
Proposed Theory of Needs Need for Achievement
(nAch) drive to excel, to achieve in relation
to a set of standards Need for Affiliation (nAff)
the desire for friendly and close interpersonal
relationships Need for Power (nPow) need to
make others behave in a way in which they would
not have behaved otherwise (to have power over
them)
nAch nPow nAff
12
McClellands Learned Needs Theory
Achievement (n Ach)
Affiliation (n Aff)
Power (n Pow)
13
Douglas McGregor (1906-1964)
  • Taught psychology at MIT.
  • At Antioch College, McGregor found that his
    classroom teaching of human relations did not
    always work in practice.
  • From these experiences, his ideas evolve and lead
    him to recognize the influence of assumptions we
    make about people and our managerial style.

Douglas McGregor
14
Theory X
  • Management is responsible for organizing the
    elements of productive enterprise money,
    materials, equipment, people in the interest of
    economic ends.
  • With respect to people, this is a process of
    directing their efforts, motivating them,
    controlling their actions, modifying their
    behavior to fit the needs of the organization.
  • Without this active intervention by management,
    people would be passive even resistant to
    organizational needs. They must, therefore, be
    persuaded, rewarded, punished, controlled their
    activities must be directed. This is
    managements task -- in managing subordinate
    managers or workers. We often sum it up by
    saying that management consists of getting things
    done through other people.

15
Theory X
  • Behind this conventional theory there are several
    additional beliefs less explicit, but
    widespread
  • The average man is by nature indolent he works
    as little as possible.
  • He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility,
    prefers to be led.
  • He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to
    organizational needs.
  • He is by nature resistant to change.
  • He is gullible, not very bright the ready dupe
    of the charlatan and the demagogue.

16
Theory Y
  • Management is responsible for organizing the
    elements of productive enterprise money,
    materials, equipment, people in the interest of
    economic ends.
  • People are not by nature passive or resistant to
    organizational needs. They have become so as a
    result of experience in organizations.
  • The motivation, the potential for development,
    the capacity for assuming responsibility, the
    readiness to direct behavior toward
    organizational goals are all present in people.
    Management does not put them there. It is a
    responsibility of management to make it possible
    for people to recognize and develop these human
    characteristics for themselves.
  • The essential task of management is to arrange
    organizational conditions and methods of
    operation so that people can achieve their own
    goals best by directing their own efforts toward
    organizational objectives.

17
Theory X Theory Y
  • Work is inherently distasteful to most people.
  • Most people are not ambitious, have little desire
    for responsibility, and prefer to be directed.
  • Most people have little capacity for creativity
    in solving organizational problems.
  • Motivation occurs only at the physiological and
    safety levels.
  • Most people must be closely controlled and often
    coerced to achieve organizational objectives.
  • Work is as natural as play, if the conditions are
    favorable.
  • Self-control is often indispensable in achieving
    organizational goals.
  • The capacity for creativity in solving
    organizational problems is widely distributed in
    the population.
  • Motivation occurs at the social, esteem, and
    self-actualization levels, as well as
    physiological and security levels.
  • People can be self-directed and creative at work
    if properly motivated.

18
Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000)
  • His research emphasized job enrichment (depth)
    rather than job enlargement
  • Job context (hygiene factors) needed to be
    optimal to prevent job dissatisfaction. These
    factors (according to Herzberg) did not motivate.
  • Job content (motivators) factors that did lead
    to motivation
  • Money (according to Herzberg) could motivate if
    it was seen as a reward for accomplishment but
    if money was given without regard for merit, then
    it was a hygiene factor.

Frederick Herzberg
19
Motivation and Hygiene Factors
HYGIENE FACTORS ENVIRONMENT
MOTIVATORS WHAT THEY DO
Achievement Recognition for Accomplishment Challen
ging Work Increased Responsibility Growth and
Development
Policies and Administration Supervision Working
Conditions Interpersonal Relations Money, Status,
Security
20
Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
Intrinsic factors
Extrinsic factors
Factors within the job context
Factors within the job content
  • Achievement
  • Increased responsibility
  • Recognition
  • Pay
  • Status
  • Working conditions

Dissatisfiers Hygiene factors
Satisfiers Motivators
21
Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction -
Dissatisfaction
I. TRADITIONAL
High job satisfaction
High job dissatisfaction
II. HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR VIEW
High job satisfaction
Low job satisfaction
  • Motivators
  • Feeling of achievement
  • Meaningful work
  • Opportunities for advancement
  • Increased responsibility
  • Recognition
  • Opportunities for growth

Low job dissatisfaction
High job dissatisfaction
  • Hygienes
  • Pay
  • Status
  • Job security
  • Working conditions
  • Fringe benefits
  • Policies and procedures
  • Interpersonal relations

22
Frederick Herzberg
23
Motivation and Hygiene Factors
THE JOB SURROUNDINGS AND THE HYGIENE FACTORS
SUPERVISION
WORKING CONDITIONS
RESPONSIBILITY
ACHIEVEMENT
BENEFITS
THE JOB ITSELF AND THE MOTIVATOR FACTORS
COMPANY POLICY AND ADMINIS- TRATION
INTER- PERSONAL RELATION- SHIPS
WORK ITSELF
RECOGNITION
GROWTH
ADVANCEMENT
SECURITY
STATUS
SALARY
24
A Comparison of the Content Theories
Maslow (need hierarchy) Self-actualization Este
em Belongingness, social, and love Safety
and security Physiological
  • Herzberg
  • (two-factor theory)
  • The work itself
  • Responsibility
  • Advancement
  • Growth
  • Achievement
  • Recognition
  • Quality of inter-
  • personal relations
  • among peers, with
  • supervisors, with
  • subordinates
  • Job security

Alderfer Growth Relatedness Existe
nce
McClelland Need for achievement Need
for power Need for affiliation
Higher order needs
Motivators
Hygiene conditions
Basic needs
25
Work Design
  • Richard Hackman, Edward Lawler, and Greg Oldhams
    work extended Herzbergs notions by adding a
    situational (it depends) dimension
  • Key job characteristics
  • Depending on an individuals growth-need
    strength, these characteristics could be
    amplified to make the job more meaningful.

26
Job Characteristics Model
Outcomes (Personal and Work)
Critical Psychological State
Core Job Characteristics
Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance
Meaningfulness of Work
High Internal Work Motivation High Quality Work
Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low
Absenteeism and Turnover
Responsibility for Outcomes
Autonomy
Knowledge of Results of Work
Feedback About Job
Employee Growth Need
27
Motivation Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom
  • The expectancy theory of Victor Vroom helps
    explain the choosing process among individuals in
    terms of the value (valence) of the reward and
    the expectancy of receiving the reward.

Victor Vroom
28
Expectancy Theory
29
Expectancy Theory
  • Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler extended Vrooms
    work with their model of expectancy.

30
Expectancy Theory (Lyman W. Porter Edward E.
Lawler III)
Revised Diagram of the Theoretical Model
SOURCE Managerial Attitudes and Performance,
1968, Richard D. Irwin Inc.
31
Principles of Expectancy Theory
  • V1 S(V2 x I)
  • The valence associated with various first-level
    outcomes is a sum of the multiplication of the
    valences (V2) attached to all second-level
    outcomes with their respective instrumentalities
    (I)
  • M f(V1 x E)
  • Motivation is a multiplicative function of the
    valence for each first-level outcome (V1) and the
    perceived expectancy (E) that a given behavior
    will be followed by a particular first-level
    outcome
  • P f(M x A)
  • Performance is considered to be a multiplicative
    function of motivation (the force) and ability

32
Process Theories of MotivationExpectancy Theory
(continued)
  • Management practices
  • Managers need to focus on employee expectations
    for success.
  • Managers must actively determine which
    second-level outcomes are important to employees.
  • Managers should link desired second-level
    outcomes to the organizations performance goals.

33
Expectancy Theory Example
Valences of second- level outcomes (in
parentheses)
Instrumentalities (how much performance outcome
and second-level outcome are associated
Performance outcome (valences x instrumentalities)
Expectancy (probability of performance
given effort)
Day off (6)
0.6
Finishing budget on time (6.9)
Recognition/compliment from boss (3)
1.0
Mention of performance in personnel record (1)
0.3
0.4
2.76
Day off (6)
0.2
Finishing budget on required day but after
deadline (3.2)
Recognition/compliment from boss (3)
Motivation
0.7
0.7
2.24
Mention of performance in personnel record (1)
-0.1
1.0
.20
Day off (6)
0.0
Finishing budget on day after deadline (.20)
Recognition/compliment from boss (3)
0.2
Mention of performance in personnel record (1)
-0.4
34
Equity Theory
  • Equity theory is not a new one but focuses on how
    individuals perceive their reward or pay compared
    to what others are receiving.
  • Issues of social justice and distributive justice
    are involved in the theories of Stacy Adams and
    Elliot Jaques.

Elliot Jacques
35
Process Theories of MotivationEquity Theory
  • Employees compare their efforts and rewards with
    those of others in similar work situations.
  • Individuals, who work in exchange for rewards
    from the organization, are motivated by a desire
    to be equitably treated at work.
  • Equity exists when employees perceive that the
    ratios of their inputs (efforts) to their
    outcomes (rewards) are equivalent to the ratios
    of other similar employees.
  • Inequity exists when these ratios are not
    equivalent.

36
The Equity Theory of Motivation
OP ORP IP IRP
Compares his/her input/outcome ratio to reference
persons (RP) inputs (I) and outcomes (O)
A person (P) with certain inputs (I) and
receiving certain outcomes (O)
equity

and perceives
or
inequity
OP ORP IP IRP
lt
or
OP ORP IP IRP
inequity
gt
IP Inputs of the person OP Outcomes of the
person IRP Inputs of reference person ORP
Outcomes of reference person
37
Managing Across Cultures
  • Geert Hofstede (1928 - ) describes cultural
    differences in different countries.
  • Individualism vs. collectivism (group
    orientation)
  • Power Distance The level of preference for
    equality or inequality within groups
  • Uncertainty avoidance The preference for risk
    vs. structure.
  • Masculinity (assertiveness) vs. femininity
    (tender values).
  • Long term vs. Short term orientation.

Geert Hofstede Courtesy of Prof. Hofstede
38
Last Thoughts from Peter Drucker
  • I would hope that American managersindeed,
    managers worldwidecontinue to appreciate what I
    have been saying almost since day one that
    management is so much more than exercising rank
    and privilege its so much more than making
    deals. Management affects people and their
    lives, both in business and in many other aspects
    as well. The practice of management deservers our
    utmost attention it deserves to be studied
About PowerShow.com