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Learning Theories

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Comparing Learning Theories and Educational Technology The End Have students explore new concepts on the internet and link the concepts to previously learned ones. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Theories


1
Learning Theories
  • By Sara Dittmar
  • Section 5553

2
What are Learning Theories?
  • Theories about how people acquire knowledge and
    learn.
  • The three Learning Theories that will be
    discussed in this presentation are
  • Behaviorism
  • Cognitivism, and
  • Constructivism

3
Behaviorism
  • Looks at learning as a function of change in
    behavior.
  • Changes in behavior are a result of a persons
    response to events in their environment.
  • Behavior that is positively reinforced will
    reoccur and vise versa.
  • B.F. Skinners S-R Theory agrees.

4
Ideas from B.F. Skinners S-R Theory
  • Reinforcement is key
  • Behavior that is positively reinforced- will
    reoccur.
  • Information should be presented in small amounts
    (so that responses can be reinforced- also known
    as shaping).
  • stimulus generalization- says that
    reinforcements will generalize will similar
    stimuli.
  • Additional information on Behaviorism
    http//plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

5
Cognitivism
  • Looks at learning as a function of the mind.
  • George A. Millers Information Processing Theory
    follows this idea.
  • His theory has become a general theory of human
    cognition.

6
Ideas from Millers Information Processing Theory
  • Concept of chunking information together to
    remember it.
  • Short term memory limited to 7 chunks of
    information.
  • Planning is a fundamental cognitive process.
  • Behavior is hierarchically organized.
  • Additional information on Cognitivism
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitivism_(psycholo
    gy)

7
Constructivism
  • Looks at learning as an active process.
  • Learners construct new ideas and concepts based
    on their current and past knowledge.
  • J. Bruner is a leading Constructivist theorist.
  • Additional Constructivism information
    http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learn
    ing_theory)

8
Ideas from Bruners Constructivist Theory
  • When it comes to a theory of Instruction, 4
    things should be kept in mind
  • There is a predisposition towards learning
  • Knowledge is structured to be easily grasped by
    the learner
  • The most effective order to present material, and
  • The nature of rewards and punishments.

9
Comparing Learning Theories and Educational
Technology
Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism
Belief of how people learn Sees learning as a function of behavior (through reinforcements and punishments). Sees learning as a function of the mind. Sees learning as an active process where the learner constructs new ideas from past or current knowledge.
How technology can be used to aid learning Many educational computer programs award points or other rewards for answering questions correctly and can reinforce student behavior when learning. Have students play an educational computer game that allows them to continue to answer a question until they get it right answer (this allows them to develop a process to answering that type of question). Have students explore new concepts on the internet and link the concepts to previously learned ones.
10
The End
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