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Great Depression

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Great Depression Brother can you spare a dime? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Great Depression


1
Great Depression
  • Brother can you spare a dime?

2
(1)Crisis of Democracy in the West
  • Problems After the war
  • Jobs for Veterans
  • Rebuilding
  • Debt
  • Socialism Nationalismradical ideas
  • Peace Settlements unfair
  • Lack of Strong Leaders

3
(2)Treaties Drafted to Encourage International
Peace
  • Locarno Treaty-settled borders btwn Germany,
    France, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Poland
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928-Renounced
    War-Disarmament for U.S., Britain, Japan, France,
    etc.
  • League of Nations-Nations cooperate

4
(34)Weak Spots in the World Economy
  • America-overproduction, decreased demand,
    prices?for raw materialsgoods
  • Great Depression-affected world economy, banks
    stopped loans abroad, demand for repayment of
    foreign lands, ?tariffssnowball effect

5
OBJ 1 - Describe the CAUSES and SPARK of the
Great Depression. How did Overproduction affect
both farmers and industry? What system collapsed
and caused millions to lose their savings?
Explain how buying on Margin created the Spark.
How did people lose money because of the spark?
  • I. OBJ 1- Cause Spark of the Depression
  • A. Causes of the Depression
  • 1. Overproduction, too much stuff (Factories
    and Farms)
  • a. Factory Workers begin to get layed-off
  • - Workers cannot buy goods, even more
    goods are overproduced
  • b. Farmers Cant Survive
  • -low prices (cant pay loans / make a
    living)
  • c. Supply Demand- Prices Drop
  • 2. Bank Failures
  • a. Banks close and loose
  • b. People default on loans (Cant
    pay Back)
  • c. Banks cannot cover their
    deposits, because it was lent out to bad
    creditors 5,000 banks close between
    1929-1932
  • d. People loose entire LIFE SAVINGS

6
1920s Problems
Factories making Too Much, Farms growing too much
BANKS Have NO PEOPLE LOST SAVINGS
JOBS NO ONE TO HELP!
Factories Fire Workers
(Dont need them) Farm Prices fall
(Farmers cant make )
Banks Close because they have no money Loans
have not been paid back, cant give people
their savings
Farmers Factory Workers cant pay back loans to
Banks DEFAULT!!
7
Banks Close
Banks have no money to give people


People Default on Loans
People Loose savings
8
OBJ 1- Cause Sparks of Depression
  • B. SPARK!!! Of the Depression
  • 1. Stock Market Crash, Black Thur. Oct. 29, 1929
  • a. Summer 1929, Investors begin to sell stocks
  • b. Supply Demand Again Massive Sell-Off and
    prices begin to ______
  • 2. How???
  • a. Buying on Margin (Borrowing )
  • - Buy stock by just paying a small
    portion of what the stock is worth
  • ex.- 100 shares at 10 1000 only pay 300
  • still owe 700
  • -Problem, stock crashes and you loose
    your money and cant payback stock broker
  • - stock broker cant pay back bank

9
(No Transcript)
10
OBJ 1- Cause Sparks of Depression
  • QUICK REVIEW
  • Causes 1. Overproduction
  • 2. Bank Closings
  • Spark 1. Stock Market Crash
  • Results 1. Unemployment
  • 2. Life Savings Lost

TOO MUCH STUFF!
BLACK TUESDAY
11
(5) Countries Disagree on Policies
  • British wanted to relax harsh treatments of
    Versilles treaty-fearing power of USSR
  • France did not.

12
(6) Reactions to Depression
  • Coalition governments-merging of political
    parties.
  • France, 1936-Leon Blum-Socialist Leader, Popular
    Front Government,Tried to solve labor problems
    and pass social legislation.
  • Germany-Weimar Republic-political division,
    competition for power, plagued by corruption.
  • Britain,1926-general strike, Labour Party
    Conservative Party gain support in Parliament.

13
(7 12)Prosperity Depression
  • U.S.A. returns to isolation-does not join League
  • Limited Immigration Red Scare (Russians,
    Chinese, Japanese)
  • Presidents during this time Wilson, Coolidge,
    Hoover, FDR
  • New Deal 1932-Get out of Depression-govt more
    involved, jobs, social security, bank insurance

14
(910)Countries want Independence
  • Commonwealth of Nations formed by British after
    WWI, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, South Africa
  • Ireland-I.R.A. (Irish Republican Army), used
    guerilla warfare against British
  • 1916 Easter Rising-revolt against British 1922
    gains freedom except in Northern Ireland

15
(11)France Pursues Security
  • Maginot Line Wall/fortification along border
    between France and Germany.

16
A Culture in Conflict Section 2
  • Changes in Society womenssuffrage, rejection of
    tradition, prohibition, Christian fundamentalism
    spreads in rural areas, Popular culture spreads.
  • Cultural Changes Jazz, Literature, Harlem
    Renaissance, Abstract Art, Scientific
    Discoveries, Architecture influenced by design

17
(1-3) Science
  • Marie Curie-radioactivity
  • Albert Einstein-relativity
  • Sigmund Freud-psychoanalysis

18
(4-6) Art
  • Pablo Picasso-cubism (3 dimentional)
  • Georges Braque
  • Dada artists revolt against civilization and
    shock viewers
  • Henri Matisse-unlike real life
  • Paul Klee-abstract
  • Vasily Kandinsky-abstract
  • Salvadore Dali-dream-like

19
PabloPicasso
Massacre at Korea 1951
20
Georges Barque
  • Violin and Candlestick 1910

21
Henri Matisse
  • Woman with Hat 1905
  • Dessert Harmony in Red 1908

22
Paul Klee
23
Vasily Kandinsky
  • Composition VII
  • Composition X

24
Salvador Dali
Soft Construction with Boiled Beans
25
Salvadore DaliThe persistence of memory
26
Dadaism
27
ArchitectureFrank Lloyd Wright
28
(78) Literature
  • Eric Remarque-All Quite on the Western Front
  • T.S. Elliot-The Waste Land
  • Ernest Hemingway-The Sun Also Rises
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald-The Great Gatsby
  • Virginia Woolf-To the Lighthouse, Mrs. Dalloway
  • James Joyce-Finnegans Wake
  • Writers experiment with the stream of
    consciousness-characters inner thoughts explored

29
(910)Popular Culture
  • Radio-creates mass culture through sound
  • Jazz music-pioneered by African Americans
    combines western harmonies w/African rhythms,
    symbolizes the 1920s

30
(1112) Society
Louise Brooks
  • 1920s women defy tradition-gt Flappers
  • Women won the right to vote, access to higher
    education, admittance to art and science.

Alice Joyce
31
OBJ 2- Affects of the Great Depression
Wizard
  • C. Escaping the Depression
  • 1. Radio- Comedies, Soap Operas
  • 2. Movies- Shirley Temple, Child Actors
  • a. Snow White (first full-length
    animation)
  • b. Wizard of OZ
  • Small girl escaping the Dust Bowl
  • 3. Literature
  • a. Steinbeck, Grapes of Wrath
  • About a family of Okies escaping the Dust
    Bowl and how horribly they
    were treated

of
OZ
32
(No Transcript)
33
Benito Mussolini
  • Victor Emmanuel III
  • Mussolini

34
Benito Mussolini
35
(A) Fascism in Italy
  • Mussolinis Rise to Power-1919 organized Veterans
    and angry Italians in the fascist party.
  • Organized Black Shirts-Violence
  • King Victor Emmanuel III gives control after
    March on Rome
  • Italy becomes dictatorship and economy is brought
    under control.Cooperate State (fascist party
    controlled all)

36
(B) Fascism in Italy
  • Men, women children make sacrifices for nation
  • Youth obey military discipline and glorify
    Mussolini
  • Mussolini IL Duce The Leader
  • Machines and Women Unemployment
  • Influenced Hitler and Stalin

37
(C) What is Fascism?
  • While both fascism and communism were by their
    appeal during economic hard times and by
    dictators who imposed totalitarian govts, the 2
    idealologies pursued different goals and found
    support among different groups.
  • Fascism appealed to many Italians because it
    promised a strong, stable government, an end to
    political feuding, and an awakening of national
    pride.
  • 3 systems of govt competed for influence in
    postwar Europe democracy (BF) Communism (USSR)
    and fascism (Italy

38
What is Fascism?
  • Values
  • Characteristics
  • No unifying set of beliefs
  • Extreme nationalism
  • Discipline
  • Loyalty to state
  • Anti-democratic
  • Centralized
  • Authoritarian
  • Noncommunist
  • Pursued aggressive foreign expansion

39
Fascism Vs. Communism
  • Differences with Communism
  • Similarities with Communism
  • Works for nationalist rather (power for the
    party) than international goals.
  • Dictator takes all-dont share the wealth.
  • Supports a society with defined classes.
  • Terror, blind devotion to state
  • Totalitarian governments to control nation and
    make rapid changes

40
Totalitarian Government
  • Single party dictatorship
  • State control of economy
  • Censorship
  • Obedience to single ruler
  • Schools and Media used to force ideals

41
Adolf Hitler
42
Germany after World War I
  • Under Weimar Republic
  • Rise of Nazi Party
  • Blamed for Versailles Treaty
  • French occupation of Ruhr leads to economic
    crises.
  • Inflation spirals out of control
  • Economy improves in late 1920s
  • Great Depression hits 1930s
  • Tumultuous times stimulates new cultural
    movements
  • Berlin attracts writers and artists from around
    the world
  • 1919 leader of Nazi Party (Nationalist Socialist
    German Workers)Hitler
  • 1923 Hitler wrote- Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
  • Hitlers ideas rooted in anti-semitism and a
    superior raceLebensraum-living space Germany
    for Aryans
  • Nazi membership ?as unemployment?
  • Hitler promised to end reparations, create jobs,
    rearm Germany
  • Elected Chancellor 1933

43
Germany Under Nazi Control
  • Totalitarian State Third Reich
  • Rule through Terror-Storm Troopers, Gestapo.
    Propaganda
  • Launched Public Works program-got out of
    depression
  • Ideas spread to youth-burned books
  • Single State Church
  • Campaigned against Jews-Kristallnacht 11/10/38,
    concentration camps

44
Vocabulary
  • Dawes Plan 1924 agreement in which France
    withdrew its troops from the Ruhr, and American
    loans helped the German economy recover.
  • Mein Kampf book written by Hitler while in jail
    that details Nazi goals and idealology
  • Third Reich Hitlers name for the period in
    which he ruled Germany as had past emperors such
    as Charlemagne and Bismarck
  • Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass in which
    nazi led mobs attacked Jewish communities across
    Germany.
  • Concentration Camp Detention centers for
    civilians considered to be enemies of a state
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