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President Hoover and the Effects of the Great Depression

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Title: President Hoover and the Effects of the Great Depression


1
President Hoover and the Effects of the Great
Depression
2
Hoovers Response to the Great Depression,
1929-1933
  • Herbert Hoover was the President who first had to
    deal with the deepening Depression.
  • Hoovers Economic Plan
  • Restore confidence in American economy with
    statements prosperity is just around the
    corner.
  • Promoted programs to aid business, believing once
    businesses recovered, economic benefits would
    trickle down to workers and consumers.

3
  • Set a precedent for FDRs New Deal with his use
    of federal works projects to create jobs and
    stimulate the economy.
  • Halted payment of war debts by European nations.
  • Despite these efforts, Hoovers refusal to
    provide direct relief damaged his image as the
    nations leader.

4
Poverty Spreads
  • People of all levels of society faced hardships
    during the Great Depression.
  • Unemployed laborers, unable to pay their rent,
    became homeless.
  • Sometimes the homeless built shacks of tar paper
    or scrap material. These shanty town settlements
    came to be called Hoovervilles.
  • Farm families suffered from low crop prices.
  • As a result of a severe drought and farming
    practices that removed protective prairie
    grasses, dust storms ravaged the central and
    southern Great Plains region. This area,
    stripped of its natural soil, was reduced to dust
    and became known as the Dust Bowl.
  • The combination of the terrible weather and low
    prices caused about 60 percent of Dust Bowl
    families to lose their farms.

5
Poverty Strains Society
6
Social Effects of the DepressionAssessment
  • What factors contributed to disaster for farming
    families living in the Dust Bowl?
  • (A) Drought
  • (B) Farmers plowing under prairie grasses
  • (C) Decreased prices for agricultural goods
  • (D) All of the above
  • The shanty towns made up of temporary shacks were
    called
  • (A) Roosevilles
  • (B) Hoovervilles
  • (C) Greenspans
  • (D) Simpson towns

7
Social Effects of the DepressionAssessment
  • What factors contributed to disaster for farming
    families living in the Dust Bowl?
  • (A) Drought
  • (B) Farmers plowing under prairie grasses
  • (C) Decreased prices for agricultural goods
  • (D) All of the above
  • The shanty towns made up of temporary shacks were
    called
  • (A) Roosevilles
  • (B) Hoovervilles
  • (C) Greenspans
  • (D) Simpson towns

8
What were Hoovervilles?
Hooverville in Bakersfield, California
Images attained at http//memory.loc.gov/learn/fe
atures/timeline/depwwii/depress/hoovers.html
9
What were Hoovervilles?
Family inside the Hooverville Home
10
What were Hoovervilles?
Hooverville Portland, Oregon
Fact In 1932, 273,000 families were evicted from
their homes.
11
What were Hoovervilles?
Dwellers in Local Hooverville (Circleville, Ohio)
12
What were Hoovervilles?
Former Skinner and Eddy Shipyard (Seatle)
13
What were Hoovervilles?
Hoovervilles families who lost their homes lived
in unheated shacks built from cardboard, tin, or
crates. People slept under old newspapers called
Hoover blankets. Others slept in city parks.
People selling apples and shoelaces on the street
became common sight. Cases of malnutrition,
tuberculosis, and typhoid increased, also death
from starvation and suicide. Parents often went
hungry giving what food they had to their
children.
14
What was the Bonus Army?
Members of the Bonus Army at the Capitol, 1932
15
What was the Bonus Army?
www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm203.html
16
What was the Bonus Army?
www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm203.html
17
What was the Bonus Army?
Bonus Army- 20,000 World War I veterans, who
demonstrated in Washington, DC seeking immediate
payment of a "bonus" they believed they had been
promised.
18
What was the Bonus Army?
  • Hoover insisted that the veterans were influenced
    by Communists and other agitators. He called out
    the army to break up the Bonus Armys camps and
    disperse the veterans.
  • The news photographs showing tanks and tear gas
    that had been used against war veterans destroyed
    what little popularity Hoover had left.

19
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20
Surviving the Depression
21
Surviving the Depression
  • Drought and Dust
  • During much of the 1930s, states from Texas to
    the Dakotas suffered a severe drought. Became
    known as the Dust Bowl.
  • The Dust storms, buried farm houses and made a
    dark cloud. Dust blew everywhere
  • Dust storms were everywhere, one blew from
    Oklahoma to Albany, New York.

22
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23
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24
  • What caused the Dust Bowl?
  • Years of overgrazing by cattle and plowing by
    farmers destroyed grasses that once held the land
    in place.
  • Severe drought
  • High Winds

25
"The land just blew away we had to go
somewhere."-- Kansas preacher, June, 1936
Dust in the eyes of a child on a farm, 1936
26
  • Dust Bowl Days
  • On the fourteenth day of April of nineteen thirty
    five,
  • There struck the worst of dust storms that ever
    filled the sky
  • You could see that dust storm coming,
  • the cloud looked deathlike black,
  • And through our mighty nation, it left a dreadful
    track...
  • This storm took place at sundown and lasted
    through the night,
  • When we looked out this morning we saw a terrible
    sight
  • We saw outside our windows where wheat fields
    they had grown
  • Was now a rippling ocean of dust the wind had
    blown.
  • It covered up our fences, it covered up our
    barns,
  • It covered up our tractors in this wild and windy
    storm.
  • We loaded our jalopies and piled our families in,
  • We rattled down the highway to never come back
    again. Woody Guthrie (1912-1967)From "Dust
    Storm Disaster"

27
Escaping the Dust Bowl
  • Hurt poor farmers in Oklahoma and Arkansas the
    hardest. Many Okies and Arkies packed their
    belongings and headed west.
  • They became known as Migrant Workers who moved
    from one region to another in search of work.
  • They were not wanted, had no work, and lived in
    shacks or tents.

28
Migrant Workers
In 1932, there were two million homeless people
moving around the country.
Mother and child from Oklahoma, now migrants in
California 1937
Refugee families encamped Near Holtville,
California 1937
29
Riding the Rails
30
Assessment Prompt 1
  • You should now use your notes and the information
    collected from the movie to complete Assessment
    Prompt 1

31
Americans Pull Together
  • Throughout the country, people pulled together to
    help one another.
  • Neighbors in difficult circumstances helped those
    they saw as worse off than themselves.
  • When banks foreclosed on a farm, neighboring
    farmers would bid pennies on land and machines,
    which they would then return to the original
    owners. These sales became known as penny
    auctions.
  • Some Americans called for radical political and
    economic change. They believed that a fairer
    distribution of wealth would help to end the hard
    times.
  • Jokes and humor helped many people to fight
    everyday despair.

32
Signs of Change
33
The only thing we have to fear is fear itself
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Our greatest primary task is to put people to
work
34
The Three Rs
  • Relief Immediate action taken to halt the
    economys deterioration.
  • Recovery "Pump - Priming" Temporary programs to
    restart the flow of consumer demand.
  • Reform Permanent programs to avoid another
    depression and insure citizens against economic
    disasters.

35
Surviving the Great DepressionAssessment
  • What was a penny auction?
  • (A) An event at which stocks once highly valued
    were auctioned off for a penny.
  • (B) An event at which laborers eager for work
    auctioned off their labor for pennies.
  • (C) An event at which neighbors, in an effort to
    help each other, auctioned their spare rooms for
    a penny.
  • (D) An event at which neighboring farmers bid
    pennies on land and machines, which the buyers
    then returned to the original owners.
  • Which of the following did not symbolize an end
    to the prosperity of the 1920s?
  • (A) Al Capone went to jail.
  • (B) Babe Ruth retired.
  • (C) Riots and political upheaval erupted in the
    nations cities.
  • (D) Calvin Coolidge died.

36
Surviving the Great DepressionAssessment
  • What was a penny auction?
  • (A) An event at which stocks once highly valued
    were auctioned off for a penny.
  • (B) An event at which laborers eager for work
    auctioned off their labor for pennies.
  • (C) An event at which neighbors, in an effort to
    help each other, auctioned their spare rooms for
    a penny.
  • (D) An event at which neighboring farmers bid
    pennies on land and machines, which the buyers
    then returned to the original owners.
  • Which of the following did not symbolize an end
    to the prosperity of the 1920s?
  • (A) Al Capone went to jail.
  • (B) Babe Ruth retired.
  • (C) Riots and political upheaval erupted in the
    nations cities.
  • (D) Calvin Coolidge died.

37
Assessment Prompt 2
  • You should now use your notes and the information
    collected from the movie to complete Assessment
    Prompt 2

38
Hoovers Limited Strategy
  • Hoover convinced business leaders to help
    maintain public confidence in the economy.
  • To protect domestic industries, Congress passed
    the Hawley-Smoot tariff, the highest import tax
    in history. European countries also raised their
    tariffs, and international trade suffered a
    slowdown.
  • Hoover set up the Reconstruction Finance
    Corporation (RFC), which gave government credit
    to banks, industries, railroads, and insurance
    companies. The theory was that prosperity at the
    top would help the economy as a whole. Many
    Americans saw it as helping bankers and big
    businessmen, while ordinary people went hungry.
  • Hoover did not support federal public assistance
    because he believed it would destroy peoples
    self-respect and create a large bureaucracy.
  • Finally, public opinion soured for Hoover when he
    called the United States Army to disband a
    protest of 20,000 unemployed World War I veterans
    called the Bonus Army.

39
A New Deal for America
  • FDR promised a New Deal for the American people.
  • He was ready to experiment with government roles
    in an effort to end the Depression.
  • As governor of New York, Roosevelt had set up an
    unemployment commission and a relief agency.
  • FDRs wife, Eleanor, was an experienced social
    reformer. She worked for public housing
    legislation, state government reform, birth
    control, and better conditions for working women.
  • When the Roosevelts campaigned for the
    presidency, they brought their ideas for
    political action with them.

40
The Election of 1932
  • Franklin Roosevelt
  • Believed that government had a responsibility to
    help people in need.
  • Called for a reappraisal of values and more
    controls on big business.
  • Helped many Americans reassess the importance of
    making it on their own without any help.
  • Much of his support came from urban workers, coal
    miners, and immigrants in need of federal relief.
  • Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular vote and
    almost 89 percent of the electoral vote.
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Believed that federal government should not try
    to fix peoples problems.
  • Argued that federal aid and government policies
    to help the poor would alter the foundation of
    our national life.
  • He argued for voluntary aid to help the poor and
    argued against giving the national government
    more power.
  • Hoover gave very few campaign speeches and was
    jeered by crowds.

41
The Election of 1932Assessment
  • What was one way President Hoover wanted to
    battle the Depression?
  • (A) Federal relief programs
  • (B) U.S. expansion into foreign markets
  • (C) Stock market investment
  • (D) Voluntary aid
  • Roosevelt won public support from which groups?
  • (A) Urban workers and coal miners
  • (B) Big business executives
  • (C) Supporters of international trade
  • (D) Journalists and newspaper publishers

42
The Election of 1932Assessment
  • What was one way President Hoover wanted to
    battle the Depression?
  • (A) Federal relief programs
  • (B) U.S. expansion into foreign markets
  • (C) Stock market investment
  • (D) Voluntary aid
  • Roosevelt won public support from which groups?
  • (A) Urban workers and coal miners
  • (B) Big business executives
  • (C) Supporters of international trade
  • (D) Journalists and newspaper publishers

43
Assessment Prompt 3
  • You should now use your notes to complete
    Assessment Prompt 3
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