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Major Events/Causes Leading to


Major Events/Causes Leading to The Civil War New additions to America (1820-1850): As new states are added to the Union (Louisiana Purchase territory slowly becoming ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Major Events/Causes Leading to

Major Events/Causes Leading to The Civil
War  New additions to America (1820-1850) As new
states are added to the Union (Louisiana Purchase
territory slowly becoming individual states),
congress had to decide if each state would be a
free or slave state. Each new addition
threatened the delicate balance of free and slave
states, infuriated one side or the other, and led
to heated debate. For a good example, lets take
a look at The Missouri Compromise 1820 and the
Compromise of 1850
In spiral 1 NOTES The
decision as to whether a state should be free or
slave becomes an issue of state (popular
sovereignty) vs. federal power (Congress).
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The decision as to whether a state should be free
or slave becomes an issue of state vs. federal
power. How to keep representation in Congress
balanced 2 Notes Popular Sovereignty The idea
that political authority belongs to the people
principle that would allow voters in a territory
to decide whether to ban or permit slavery.
  • It did accomplish the following
  • Added Missouri as a slave state.
  • Added Maine as a free state.
  • This made the balance of power in the
  • Senate at 12 states each.
  • A line across the Louisiana Territory at 3630
  • North of this line, slavery was to be forever
    banned (except in Missouri).
  • South of this line, slaveholding was permitted.

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3 Notes The Compromise of 1850
  • It did accomplish the following
  • California is admitted as a free state.
  • North is happy.
  • New Mexico Utah would be organized into
    territory open to slavery.
  • South is happy.
  • Slave trade (not slavery) would be abolished in
    Washington, D.C.
  • Both happy.
  • Although slave trade continued illegally.
  • A strong fugitive slave law was created.
  • South is happy.

4 NOTES Fugitive Slave Law (1850) Law stating
that all citizens had to help catch runaway
slaves or face a 1000 fine or 6mos in jail.
Northerners resented being forced to help
capture runaway slaves, and Southerners were
elated to get slaves back but angry at lack of
Northern support. (Judges who sent slaves back to
the South were awarded with 10 for their work
but only 5 if person in question was freed!!)
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5  NOTES Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) Outraged by
the Fugitive Slave Law, Harriet Beecher Stowe
addressed the cruelty of slavery in the book
Uncle Toms Cabin. It sold over 300,000 copies
in its first year. This book created more
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Bleeding Kansas What do you see?
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) The remainder of the
    Louisiana Purchase was divided into two separate
    territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Several other
    proposed causes
  • In each territory, popular sovereignty (voters)
    would decide the question of slavery.
  • This act repealed the earlier Missouri Compromise
    where slavery was banned North of Missouri.
  • The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to violence between
    proslavery and anti-slavery groups who each
    rushed to the new territory to support their
    cause. Over 200 people died in pro-slavery vs.
    anti-slavery skirmishes-- some call the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act the official start of the
    Civil War.
  • Federal Government continued to recognize the
    proslavery legislature as government of Kansas.

6 Bleeding Kansas NOTESEFFECT a. The
Kansas-Nebraska Act led to violence between
proslavery and anti-slavery groups who each
rushed to the new territory to support their
cause. b. Over 200 people died in pro-slavery
vs. anti-slavery skirmishes. c. Kansas adopts a
free state Constitution and applies to become a
  • Got rid of the Missouri Compromise by making both
    Kansas and Nebraska open to slavery.
  • Northerners had nightmares of slavery spreading.
  • In May of 1856, an army of 800 pro-slavery
    settlers invades Lawrence.
  • John Brown gets revenge, hacking 5 pro-slavery
    men to death with their sabers.
  • Senator Brooks attacked Senator Sumner with his
    cane on the floor of Congress!
  • Southerners sent Brooks replacement canes as
  • Northerners viewed this as yet another example of
    Southern brutality.

  TheDred Scott Decision (1857) A slave named
Dred Scott sued for his freedom after his owner
died. He claimed that because his owner had once
taken him to free states, he was entitled to his
freedom. The Supreme Court ruled that African
Americans were not citizens and therefore could
not sue. The court also ruled that the
restriction of slavery is unconstitutional
because the 5th amendment states that no one may
be deprived of life, liberty or property without
due process of law. Because slaves were property
this meant that Congress had no power to ban
slavery anywhere. This reversed earlier
decisions and was an enormous step back for
abolitionists (state legislatures could still ban
but anything Congress had decided was null and
8 NOTES a. Harpers Ferry, VA (1859) John
Brown, abolitionist, attempted to start a slave
revolt with 22 others at Harpers Ferry, VA by
raiding a federal arsenal and taking hostages.
b. The plan failed and Brown was hanged, but
Southerners began to fear abolitionists and slave
9 NOTESThe election of Lincoln
 Lincoln was elected President in 1860 with just
40 of the vote (all from the Northern
states. The Southern states felt they had lost
their voice in government and no longer wanted to
be a part of the U.S.A. Our UNION of states will
be broken apart!!!  
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10 NOTES Secession
The Confederate States of America (CSA) formed in
1861-- even before Lincolns inauguration,
seven states seceded from the Union. Secession
means The act of formally withdrawing from the
Union. a.   South Carolina (1st one to
seceed) b.  Mississippi c.   Florida d. 
Alabama e.  Georgia f.   Louisiana g.  Texas  
1858 Lincoln responded by saying A house
divided against itself can not stand. I believe
this government cannot endure, Permanently half
slave and half free.
10 NOTES CONT. There will be a total of 11
states leaving the Union. The CSA chose
Jefferson Davis as their President, wrote their
own Constitution which guaranteed citizens could
hold slaves, printed their own money.. This
Means WAR!! Civil War on our own turf! Ways
secession benefit the South Think economy,
free labor, unrestricted trade with Europe,
revive African slave-trade, necessity would
compel South to manufacture/develop, and keep
the southern way of life!
  • Border States were on the Border of the USA and
  • Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland, and
  • The border states did have slavery but chose not
    to secede because they couldnt agree on which
    side to fight.
  • Virginia ended up splitting into two because
    Lincoln sent troops into Western VA due to their
    Union Loyalty and they set up their new govt and
    joined the Union as W. VA (1863). So now there
    are two states, VA and West VA.

  • MO and KY controlled key stretches of the Ohio
    and Mississippi rivers.
  • Washington DC was bordered on three sides by MD.
    DC is the capital for the Union, yet its
    surrounded by a lot of people that are pro-South.
  • DEL- slave holders supported secession but they
    were outnumbered.
  • KY, MO, MD people were deeply divided on the
    issue of secession and some fought for Union and
    Some Confederate.
  • Important to note that slavery WAS NOT the only
    issue states were fighting about. 11
  • States Rights was the main issue. Voting by the
    people/representatives in Congress for or against

Start of War