The%20Growth%20of%20the%20United%20States - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The%20Growth%20of%20the%20United%20States

Description:

Title: Growth of the American Economy Author: Valued Gateway Customer Last modified by: klostec Created Date: 2/5/2003 3:32:54 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:130
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 52
Provided by: ValuedGa450
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The%20Growth%20of%20the%20United%20States


1
The Growth of the United States
  • Rural Republic to Urban State
  • 1860 - 1900

2
Main Ideas
  • The End of Reconstruction
  • The Growth of Industry and the Economy
  • Labor Movements
  • Urban Growth and Immigration
  • Changes in American Life
  • The West
  • Changes in Politics

3
The End of Reconstruction
  • Who was Andrew Johnson?
  • Lincoln's successor
  • A disappointment to the Radical Republicans
  • A white supremacist
  • Full of contempt for Congressional initiatives
  • Replaced by Ulysses S. Grant in 1868

4
And the Reconstruction continues . . .
  • Improvements in civil service and foreign policy
  • No peace in the South, especially with the Klan
  • Emergence of Carpetbaggers and Scalawags
  • Grant won again in 1872, but was soon followed
    by economic panic in 1873

5
The End of Reconstruction
  • Intimidation of black voters
  • Supreme Court rulings did not help the matter
  • The Election of 1876
  • Democrat Samuel Tilden and Republican
    Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Disputed returns
  • The Compromise of 1877
  • Republicans agree to help out the South
    financially
  • Democrats agree to Hayes as President
  • The Republican party collapsed and the
    Reconstruction ends.

6
The second half of the 19th century brought
tremendous growth to the U.S. economy
  • Natural resources
  • growing labor supply
  • growing population
  • capital
  • new technology
  • business friendly policies and practices
  • talented business leaders

7
Laissez-Faire Economic Theories
  • Social Darwinism
  • Charles Darwins theories applied to capitalism
  • The strongest and wealthiest would survive, the
    poor were disregarded
  • Gospel of Wealth
  • To some, religion was more convincing
  • application of Protestant work ethic
  • Also believed that the wealthy had a
    responsibility to be philanthropic to benefit
    society
  • God gave me my wealth
  • J.D. Rockefeller

8
Growth in Rail System
  • Consolidation
  • Until the Civil War, sporadic, inefficient, and
    incompatible
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt - New York Central Railroad
    New York to Chicago , 4500 miles of track
  • trunk lines
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • Congress gave authority during the Civil War
  • Divided between Union Pacific and Central Pacific
    companies
  • Irish, veterans and Chinese
  • May 10, 1869, golden spike at Promontory Point,
    Utah
  • By 1900, 4 more lines linked East to West

9
Expansion of Railroads
  • Increase of miles of track x5 from 65-00
  • great impact on American life
  • market for goods
  • boost in other industries
  • 4 rail zones became 4 current time zones
  • modern stockholder corporation and complex
    structure of business organization

10
Moving West
  • Land Grants
  • subsidies in loans and land grants
  • 80 companies took 170 million acres of land
  • sold extra land to settlers to finance
    construction
  • value of government land increased substantially

11
The Good and the Bad
  • Positive Consequences
  • railroads promoted western settlement
  • linked the East with the West
  • Negative Consequences
  • poor construction, rushed
  • corruption
  • huge profits, government bribery Eliminated
    competition
  • regional monopolies established
  • stabilized rates, reduced debts
  • The public be damned.
  • Wm. Vanderbilt

12
Growth of Industries
  • Shift from textiles and household production to
    industrial products
  • Steel
  • Oil, petroleum
  • Electricity

13
Henry Bessemer
  • 1850s
  • air blown through iron produces steel
  • Minnesotas Mesabi Range provided the start for
    this U.S. industry

14
Andrew Carnegie
  • 1850s - poor Southern immigrant grew to
    superintendent of Pennsylvania R.R.
  • 1870s - produced steel in Pittsburgh
  • outdid his competitors in distance and technology
  • Vertical Integration

15
Carnegie Steel
  • By 1900, was top of the industry
  • Carnegie retired to pursue philanthropy
  • Sold for over 400 million to J.P. Morgan
  • became U.S. Steel
  • 1st billion dollar industry and largest in the
    world

16
Oil
  • Edwin Drake, 1859
  • 1st U.S. oil drilled in Pennsylvania
  • 1863 - J.D. Rockefeller founded a company that
    would eliminate all competition

17
J.D. Rockefeller
  • Applied new technology and efficient practices to
    refineries
  • company grew, cut prices and competition
  • 1881 - Standard Oil Trust held 90 of market

18
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Prohibited contract, combination, in the form of
    trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of
    trade or commerce (1890)
  • U.S. v E.C. Knight Co. (1895)
  • first challenge
  • law would be applied only to commerce, not
    manufacturing
  • Reforms would be strengthened under Progressivism

19
New Technology
  • Samuel F.B. Morse (1844)
  • 1866 - transatlantic cable
  • Alexander Graham Bell (1876)
  • by 1900, cables connected all continents in
    communication

20
Other Technology
  • George Eastmans Kodak Camera (1888)
  • fountain pen (1884)
  • King Gillettes safety razor (1895)
  • Thomas Edison
  • George Westinghouse

21
Marketing Goods
  • Needed ways to market products
  • R.H. Macy (New York) and Marshall Field (Chicago)
  • places to shop in urban centers
  • Frank Woolworth
  • chain retail
  • Sears Roebuck and Montgomery Ward
  • mail order catalogs

22
Impact of Industrialization
  • Concentration of wealth
  • Richest 10 controlled 9/10 of the nations
    wealth
  • Horatio Alger Myth
  • Novelist
  • Wrote about young men who through hard work, luck
    and honesty could become rich

23
Discontent Among the Ranks
  • While industries did offer opportunities for the
    growth of a middle class, 2/3 of all Americans
    worked more menial, low-paying jobs
  • Skills were no longer valued
  • Conditions, whether in factories or on the
    railways, were dangerous, unstable, and the
    compensation minimal
  • The late 19th century saw a rise in unrest in
    these workers

24
Emergence of Labor Unions
  • National Labor Union (1866)
  • Noted for its inclusion of women and blacks,
    though it excluded Chinese
  • Significant victory was the 8 hour day, and
    worked hard for social programs
  • Knights of Labor(1869)
  • Led by Terrence Powderly
  • All inclusive
  • Advocated worker cooperatives, abolishing child
    labor, trusts and monopolies
  • People turned away from the Knights after the
    Haymarket Riot

25
Emergence of Labor Unions
  • American Federation of Labor (1886)
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Directed local unions of skilled workers
  • Not inclusive of all workers
  • Worked for basic economic goals, not reform
  • Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (1911)
  • Haymarket Riot
  • Among crowd were 200 anarchists
  • Violence broke out during a general strike in
    Chicago
  • Someone threw a bomb as police tried to break up
    the protests
  • Americans concluded that unions were radical and
    violent

26
The Business Response to Unions
  • Lockouts - closing the factory to break labor
    movements before they can happen
  • Blacklists - circulation of pro-union names
  • Yellow-dog contracts - agreement to not join a
    union
  • Use of guards and militia
  • Court injunctions

27
Union Demonstrations of Power
  • Homestead Strike (1892)
  • Carnegies Homestead Steel Mill near Pittsburgh
  • Response to cuts in wages by 20
  • Strikers defeated after 5 months
  • Pullman Strike(1894)
  • Response to wage cuts and firing of workers
    delegation members
  • Union boycott impacted lines across the nation
  • Supreme Court approved use of court injunctions
    to make workers go back to work

28
Growth of Cities
  • Product of Industrialization, changing economy
  • Poverty
  • Tenements
  • Jane Addams and the Hull House
  • Salvation Army
  • Skyscrapers, parks and public transportation
  • Reflects new use of resources (steel) in
    architecture, and the transfer of changes in
    municipal politics
  • Journalism
  • yellow journalism
  • Ladies Home Journal

29
Influx of Immigrants
  • 1866 - 1915
  • Haven from persecution, poverty, blight, and
    revolutions
  • Hope for prosperity and the American dream
  • Nativism
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Gentlemens Agreement

30
Rise of Segregation
  • Jim Crow
  • Lynching
  • Between 1882 and 1892 more than 1200 persons
    lynched
  • Lasting impact of Plessy case (1896)
  • W.E.B. DuBois
  • NAACP
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Importance of education

31
New Forms of Entertainment
  • Vaudeville
  • Baseball
  • Amusement Parks
  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Ragtime and jazz music
  • Nickelodeons and Movie theatres built
  • Barnum and Bailey Circus
  • Buffalo Bills Wild West

32
Arts in the Gilded Age
  • Literature
  • Mark Twain, Edward Bellamy and Stephen Crane
  • Architecture
  • Richard Morris Hunt, Henry Hobson Richardson,
    Louis Sullivan
  • Art
  • James McNeill Whistler, Mary Cassatt

33
Traditional Perspectives of the West
  • Geography
  • Time
  • Appearance - myth vs. reality

34
Three 19th Century Empires
  • Mining
  • Cattle
  • Farming

35
Frederick Jackson Turner
  • Significance of the Frontier in American
    History
  • More than one west
  • Frontier means . . .
  • Democracy and Individualism
  • Closure of West

36
Cowboys and Indians
  • Cowboys
  • 35,000 men from 64-84
  • 25 African American
  • 12 Mexican
  • 63 Caucasian
  • Texas to Kansas
  • Cooperation and Interdependence

37
Indians
  • 1600s - 10 million estimated
  • 1865 - 300,000
  • disease and warfare
  • Most concentrated in West

38
Indian Policy
  • Buffalo
  • 1865 - 12-15 million
  • 1885 - a few hundred remained
  • Weaken tribes
  • Bring more settlers, tourists West
  • Pacification

39
Pacification
  • 1874 - Comanche defeated at Red River Way
  • Custers Last Stand
  • 1877 - Nez Perce defeated
  • 1886 - Apache defeated
  • 1876 - 1890 - Sioux battle government
  • 1889 - Wounded Knee

40
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
  • Imposed through the 1930s
  • Make farmers out of Indians
  • Acceptance Citizenship
  • Government remained trustees of land
  • Hard to enforce

41
Changes in Agriculture
  • Mechanization
  • New lands opened
  • Specialization of products
  • Changes in the market

42
Lack of Control
  • Business cycles
  • Creditors
  • Transportation
  • Unreliable labor
  • Price structures
  • laissez-faire

43
To produce or not to produce . . .
  • We were told two years ago to go to work and
    raise a big crop, that was all we needed . . .
    and what came of it? Eight cent corn, ten cent
    oats, two cent beef, and no price at all for
    butter and eggs - thats what came of it. Then
    the politicians said that we suffered from
    over-production.
  • John D. Hicks, The Populist Revolt

44
The Agrarian Myth
  • Jeffersonian ideals
  • Superiority of farmers in American society
  • Organizations formed to reclaim that situation

45
The Grange Movement
  • granary
  • Association founded in 1867
  • Encouraged supportive legislation
  • Encouraged cooperation, community

46
Emergence of Political Organizations
  • Farmers and Laborers Union of America
  • Northwest Farmers Alliance
  • Colored Farmers National Alliance

47
The Omaha Platform
  • Permanent union
  • Wealth for Workers
  • Government owners of railroad
  • Government ownership of communication systems
  • Distribution of currency
  • Owners of land must use it

48
Populism
  • The Peoples Party
  • anti-monopoly
  • denounced Social Darwinism and laissez-faire
  • Individual had become a commodity
  • Wealth unevenly distributed
  • Included farmers, laborers, and Socialists
  • Most came from the West or South

49
Populists Gain Prominence
  • 1892 election
  • Republicans - 44
  • Democrats - 47
  • Populists - 9
  • Could have altered the outcome of election
  • Became an issue to address by Democrats and
    Republicans in 1896

50
Panic of 1893
  • Hurt the Democratic position
  • Republicans rallied support and money for next
    election
  • Voting was not secret yet, so this also impacted
    how voters performed at the polls

51
Election of 1896
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Cross of Gold Speech
  • emotional speech became a rallying cry for
    Populists
  • limited scope would limit his future
  • William McKinley
  • prosperity for all
About PowerShow.com