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National Assembly

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Title: National Assembly


1
National Assembly
2
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3
Impact of Storming of Bastille
  • Great Fear
  • In the rural areas, peasants rose up in arms
    against the nobility.
  • Chateaux were looted and burned in an attempt to
    destroy the feudal records of taxes duties.
  • Many nobles were killed or driven from their
    homes.

4
Great Fear Between June and the beginning of
August there were riots in the countryside.
Peasants burned their nobles' chateaux,
monasteries and buildings which housed public
records. They particularly targeted documents
which contained records of their feudal
obligations. It was called "The Great Fear" and
spread quickly throughout France.  
  • Between June and the beginning of August there
    were riots in the countryside. Peasants burned
    their nobles' chateaux, monasteries and buildings
    which housed public records. They particularly
    targeted documents which contained records of
    their feudal obligations. It was called "The
    Great Fear" and spread quickly throughout France.
     

5
Rumors that drove the Great Fear
  • Was it true that Marie Antoinette had attempted
    to blow up the Assembly?
  • Were there really foreign brigands from England
    and Spain marching on rural France?
  • Were foreign powers preparing to invade and
    restore the king?
  • Had Polish troops landed at Dunkirk?

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9
Impact of Great Fear
  • August 4, 1789-National Assembly started to write
    a constitution to abolish the system of feudal
    privileges.
  • Taxes were now to be paid by everyone based on
    what your earned.
  • All peasant obligations were abolished.
  • They passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man
    and Citizen

10
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • Proposed by Lafayette
  • Based on the ideas of John Locke, Montesquieu,
    the Declaration of Independence
  • Stated Men are born free and remain free and
    equal in rightsand the source of power resides
    in the people.
  • It guaranteed liberty, security, equal justice,
    fair taxes, freedom of speech, press, and
    religion to all Frenchmen.
  • Barely 300 words long
  • Printed cheaply on one single sheet of paper, so
    it could be distributed to everyone
  • Symbol of the new French social order

11
Declaration of Rights of Man
12
Declaration of Rights of Man
  • On August 26, 1789, the "Declaration of the
    Rights of Man and of the Citizen" was passed by
    the National Assembly.
  • This presented to the world a summary of the
    ideals and principles of the Revolution, and
    justified the destruction of a government based
    upon absolutism and privilege, and the
    establishment of a new regime based upon the
    inalienable rights of individuals, liberty, and
    political equality.
  • The Declaration became the preamble to the
    Constitution of 1791.
  • It has been referred to in almost every single
    revolutionary movement since 1789, and has been
    translated into nearly all major languages.
  • It is the basis of the constitutional foundations
    of many countries, including France's Fifth
    Republic.
  • Many ideas for the Declaration were from the
    Enlightenment, with the most important influence
    being John Locke's Second Treatise of Government
    (first published in England in 1690 at the time
    of the 'Glorious Revolution').

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Declaration of the Rights of Man
  • By 1791, the Declaration had been transformed
    from a legislative document into a kind of
    political manifesto.
  • No one assisted this process more than Tom Paine,
    whose Rights of Man became one of the
    best-selling books in English history, and the
    bible of working-class radicals.
  • Paine reproduced the document, word for word,
    treating it as a sacred text that ushered in a
    new epoch of world history.
  •  The King was never in favor of the Declaration
    and he refused to endorse it because he thought
    its clauses were too ambiguous.
  • He only sanctioned it under popular pressure on
    October fifth and sixth, 1791.
  • Since then, it has been adopted by all kinds of
    political groups, and has been used both to
    justify revolution and also to suppress it.

15
  • British cartoon making fun of the French
    Revolution and Declaration of Rights of Man and
    Citizen

16


  The tables were turned. The French Revolution had given the first and second estates less power than the third estate. The peasant now rides on the backs of the clergy and nobility, instead of supporting them. He carries the results of a hunt, which was forbidden in the old regime, and says vive le roi (the king) and vive la nation
17
Constitution of 1791
  • From July 6th, consecutive committees of the
    assembly, staffed mainly by lawyers worked hard
    to construct the document.
  • Finished in September of 1791, it was prefaced by
    the Declaration of the Rights of Man, voted in on
    August 26th of 1789.
  •  The constitution of 1791 was far from a meager
    regularization of existing laws and practices, as
    sensible deputies had first wanted.
  • The monarchy was certainly preserved, with
    conventional aspects, but royal power was
    carefully restricted. Louis became the first
    'functionary' of the state.
  • A permanent legislature, which the king could not
    disband, would make laws.
  • The king was given a suspensive refusal over
    legislation that could postpone endorsement for
    up to five years, even though Mirabeau had
    proposed a permanent veto.
  • The monarch ran the executive power that would
    implement the laws it was intensely disbelieved,
    because it might provide opportunities for a
    renewal of despotism.
  •    

18
Constitution of 1791
  • Reorganized the government into three branches of
    government---system of checks and balances
  • The executive was the King
  • conduct foreign affairs
  • appoint ambassadors
  • propose war
  • Moved royal family from Versailles to the
    Tuileries Palace in Paris
  • It was a constitutional monarchy.
  • The legislative branch was the National Assembly
  • freely elected
  • initiated voted on all laws
  • fixed taxes
  • controlled expenditures
  • declared war
  • The judicial branch consisted of popularly
    elected judges.
  • Standardized the court system.
  • Abolished the sale of judicial office.
  • Juries were now citizen filled.
  • Abolished the use of torture.

19
  • "The Roman Aristocrat"
  • The fattened clergyman and the wellbedecked
    nobleman go off unbothered while the figure in
    the foreground assesses carefully the value of a
    commoner.
  • This complex image also includes a piglikely a
    symbol for Louis XVIwith the cleric and the
    noble.
  • Thus the print clearly attacks the upper classes
    and likely the monarch.
  • But there is more. Specifically, the National
    Assembly had set a means test for voters, and a
    higher one for prospective officeholders. S
  • o the gigantic female is measuring the commoner
    for his right to participate in the new
    revolutionary society.
  • This then is also a critique of the National
    Assembly.
  • Who, then, is the figure in the foreground?
    Perhaps it is the revolutionary legislature,
    represented here as an arrogant Roman Senate, a
    clearly oligarchical body.

20
Weaknesses of the Constitution of 1791
  • The chronic weakness of the executive and the
    unpopularity of the king's ministers, Louis
    himself felt, made the constitution not viable.
  • After his escape attempt and capture at Varennes
    in June 1791, some modifications were made to
    reinforce his position, but they failed to
    reassure him and his acceptance, on September
    14th, was half-hearted.
  • The constitution, after so much debate and
    trouble, lasted only eleven months

21
Additional Political Reforms of the National
Assembly
  • All Frenchmen had basic rights of citizenship,
    but the right to hold office vote was based on
    persons who owned property paid taxes.
  • This eliminated several million from voting.
  • Constitution of 1791
  • Civil Constitution of the Clergy

22
Additional Political Reforms by the National
Assembly
  • Moved royal palace from Versailles to the
    Tuileries.

23
Tuileries Palace/Louvre
24
  • "Long Live Liberty"
  • Cartoonists extrapolated more and more on a new
    Louis as the Revolution went along.
  • Here, a rather rumpled King, dressed more like a
    shopkeeper than a monarch, opens a cage to let
    liberty out.
  • Many scholars argue that the King was already
    desacralized as much as a couple of decades
    before the Revolution.
  • Still Louis is associated with liberty here, and
    this treatment was mild compared with the
    personal attacks and the execution that would
    follow

25
This print depicts the Third Estaterepresented
by the peasant at the rear of the chariot, the
worker leading the horse, and the merchant
drivingdelivering to the National Assembly a
petition listing "abuses" to be remedied.
"Abuses to Suppress" This print depicts the
Third Estaterepresented by the peasant at the
rear of the chariot, the worker leading the
horse, and the merchant drivingdelivering to the
National Assembly a petition listing "abuses" to
be remedied. Source mfr 88.133
26
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • On November 27, 1790, the deputies passed a
    decree saying that an oath of loyalty to the
    Civil Constitution must be taken by all bishops,
    parish priests, and their assistants.
  • Those who refused to take it were forced to leave
    their posts.
  • On the 26 of December, King Louis signed that
    decree.
  • This was a decision he would regret until the end
    of his life.
  • The members of the assembly thought that all
    prelates would eventually swear the oath.
  • They were wrong. Only eight did.
  • Pope Pius VI was against the oath, which did not
    become known to the public until April of 1791.
  •    

27
  • "Mea Culpa of the Pope"
  • Although the revolutionaries long regarded the
    Pope as an enemy, their anger was stoked
    significantly by the papal decision to decree as
    unacceptable the Civil Constitution of the
    Clergy.
  • This decision, hardly unexpected given the way
    that the revolutionary settlement upended church
    tradition and papal authority, apparently weighed
    heavily on Louis XVI.
  • Some scholars believe it was this decision in
    Rome that turned the King down the path of no
    compromise.

28
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • July 1790
  • Since the government now paid the clergys
    salaries, it declared that the people will now
    elect their bishops.
  • Priest had to give an oath of loyalty to the
    constitution just like other government
    officials.
  • This split the Catholic clergy into two groups
    those who took the oath those who formed the
    counter-revolutionary groups.

29
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • Throughout history, the Church had owned 6 of
    the National lands.
  • Louis XVI and Necker decided to remove the Church
    from society and give the Church Lands to the
    people.
  • By doing this, the people would be happier.
  • The changes in the Church which followed the
    seizure of its possessions is a perfect example
    of the feeling of the National Assembly.
  •  The Bishops argued that the legislation affected
    the church so profoundly, in spiritual as well as
    temporal matters, that individual clerics could
    not be expected to give their consent until the
    whole church had considered it.
  • In practice, this meant waiting for papal
    approval.
  • Departments were very anxious to fill empty
    clerical posts, and the first sales of church
    lands under the provisions of the law
    nationalizing church property on November 2,
    1789, were due to begin in the autumn.

30
Political Cartoon Reducing the Clergy
31
Impact of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
  • The relations between the jurors and the
    non-jurors became increasingly bitter as the hope
    that the church would sanctify and back the
    Revolution faded farther and farther away, just
    like to the hopes for national unity the forces
    of the reaction and the counter-revolution could
    now argue that they fought to defend the church
    and religion from attack by the Revolutionaries.

32
  • A cartoon representing Louis XVI as "King James"
    with one face turned towards the Constitution and
    the other towards the non-juring clergy.

33
Other Mobs Riots
  • October 5, 1789 Womens Bread March on
    Versailles
  • King refused to approve the Declaration of Rights
    of Man bashed the revolution at a banquet.
  • In response to this insult of the Revolution, a
    crowd of housewives marched from Paris to
    Versailles saying they were upset about the high
    cost of bread.
  • The housewives presented their demands to the
    National Assembly peacefully.
  • That night, a mob stormed the palace and broke
    into the royal bedchambers.
  • The royal family barely escaped.
  • Two of the Kings bodyguards were murdered and
    beheaded and their heads were carried around on
    pikes.
  • After this, the royal family and National
    Assembly moved the seat of government from
    Versailles to the Tuileries Palace in Paris.

34
Womens March on Versailles
35
Edmund Burke wrote of the attack on Marie
Antoinettes bedchamber
  • A band of cruel ruffians and assassins,
    reekingwith blood, rushed into the chamber of
    the queen and pierced with an hundred strokes and
    poniards the bed, from whence this persecuted
    woman had but just time to fly almost naked and
    through ways unknown to the murderers had escaped
    to seek refuge at the feet of a king and husband,
    not secure of his own life for a moment.

36

6. Journée mémorable de Versailles, le lundi 5 Octobre 1789. Memorable Day at Versailles, October 5, 1789Caption Nos Modernes Amazones glorieuses de leurs Victoires revinrent à Cheval sur les Canons, avec plusieurs Messieurs de la Garde Nationale, tenant des branches de Peupliers au bruit des cris réitérés de Vive la Nation, Vive le Roi. View English translationSource Museum of the French Revolution 90.46.129
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Economic Reforms of the National Assembly
  • November 1789
  • Confiscated the land wealth of the Church to
    pay off debts
  • Government now took the responsibility of paying
    for education, social services, salaries of the
    clergy.
  • Church land was used as a security for additional
    loans to avoid bankruptcy.
  • Assignats
  • Government bonds could be exchanged for a new
    paper currency called Assignats but there was a
    5 interest rate on them.
  • Assignats were only used to buy Church land and
    were then destroyed.
  • After a while, the assignats were treated as
    regular currency. But lost 25 of their face
    value.
  • The use of Assignats created a new class of
    property owners loyal to the revolution.
  • Uniform system for weights measures
  • Abolished guild restrictions.
  • Abolished customs transported within the country.

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43
Flight to Varennes
  • On the 20 June 1791, Louis XVI, Marie-Antoinette,
    their children and closest servants fled Paris in
    secret, hoping to reach the Luxembourg border and
    to join the Austrian troops there.
  •  Unfortunately for the King, the royal party made
    it only as far as the small town of Varennes.
  • A man called Drouet, who was a local postmaster,
    recognized them. Louis was brought back to Paris
    on June 22.
  • Surrounded by the National Guard as they passed
    through the streets of the capital, the people
    watched the royal family with silence and
    hostility.
  • The King had left a proclamation behind
    explaining his rejection of the Revolution's
    "complete anarchy" many thought he had renounced
    the right to lead the French nation.

44
The Arrest of the Royal Family at Varennes
45
Royal Familys Flight to Varennes
  • The King had been communicating with his
    brother-in-law, the Holy Roman Emperor in Austria
    to raise an army to take back control of France.
  • They plotted their escape.
  • But they were intercepted, and thousands of
    people lined the road to watch their forced
    return by the National Guard.
  • Anti-revolutionary documents were found. The
    people realized the King would never work with
    the revolution
  • Now the royal family were prisoners.

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Royal Flight to Varennes
  • The Flight to Varennes (June 20-21, 1791) was a
    significant episode in the French Revolution
    during which King Louis XVI of France and his
    immediate family were unsuccessful in their
    attempt to escape from the radical agitation of
    the Jacobins in Paris.
  • Their destination was the fortress town of
    Montmédy in northeastern France, a Royalist
    stronghold from which the King hoped to initiate
    a counter-revolution.
  • This represents a turning point after which
    popular hostility towards the monarchy as an
    institution.
  • The various disguises included Louis- a dress
    and a black wig, Marie- a servant dressed in a
    plain grey dress and a veil, and Count Axel
    Fersen- dressed as a coachman for Marie.
  • Marie in the end was the one to be discovered.
    She was supposed to be a humble servant, but she
    still acted like a stuck up royal when they were
    inspecting her fake passport.

48
  • "Louis XVI Stopped in his Flight at Varennes"
  • This romantic English painting of the Kings
    flight suggests only a few feet separated the
    King from escape.

49
Royal Flight to Varennes
50
Publics Reaction to Their Escape
  • When the King and Queen returned, the public spat
    on the King and tore the Queens clothing.
  • Messages were written on the walls of the city.
    One of them was Anyone clapping for the King
    will be whipped Anyone booing the King will be
    hanged.
  • When the new Emperor of Austria threatened to
    invade France and set the Queen and King free,
    the people acted like a mob to arrest them and
    defend their city.
  • The mob killed the guards and anyone else in
    sight and in the palace including the maids.
  • Louis and Marie were thrown in prison.

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52
Flight to Varennes
  • Political Cartoon on Louis

53
Impact of the Flight to Varennes
  • Despite this treachery, the King was not
    punished.
  • The Assembly, wanting neither a Regency nor to
    redraft their brand new Constitution, declared
    that he had been kidnapped his unacceptance of
    the Revolution, they claimed, had been
    manufactured by his advisors.
  • The Constitution of 1791, which passed in August,
    confirmed the King's position.
  • His use of the royal veto to block the
    Legislative Assembly's measures against priests
    and emigrés, however, continued to undermine his
    standing.

54
  • The family of pigs is brought back to the pigsty!

55
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56
Legislative Assembly
  • And Political Parties of the French Revolution

57
Reaction to the Constitution of 1791 Why the
National Assembly Stepped Down?
  • The lower classes felt betrayed by the
    Constitution of 1791.
  • It did not live up to the expectations set by
    the Declaration of Rights of Man.
  • Most of the peasants and sans-culottes did not
    qualify to vote or hold office under the
    Constitution of 1791.
  • This led to a split between the middle class and
    the lower class.
  • The lower class felt the old feudal system had
    now been replaced with a new aristocracy based
    upon wealth.

58
Reaction to the Constitution of 1791 Formation
of the Legislative Assembly
  • A new election was held.
  • If you had been a representative to the National
    Assembly, you could not serve on the Legislative
    Assembly.
  • A new group of delegates was elected---most
    dissatisfied by the Constitution of 1791.
  • The Legislative Assembly was split into political
    factions or parties over the different goals for
    the Revolution.

59
Reaction to the Constitution of 1791 Why the
political parties developed?
  • The actions of the National Assembly had
    splintered the revolutionaries.
  • Some were happy with the moderate reforms.
  • Others wanted more radical reforms.
  • Some wanted to return to the old way of doing
    things.

60
Emigres or Royalists
  • They were the most conservative group.
  • They were made up of nobles and clergy members
    that had fled the country because of the
    revolution.
  • They wanted to undo the revolution and restore
    the Old Regime.
  • They helped to organize European nations to fight
    the French revolutionaries.

61
Emigres or Royalists
  • Key Figures
  • a)Louis XVI
  • b)Marie Antoinette
  • c)Comte dArtois
  • d)Comte dProvence
  • e)Tonunneau Mirabeau

62
Gironde/Girondin Political Party
  • Dominated the newly formed Legislative Assembly
    from 1792- October 1793---overall they supported
    the Constitutional Monarchy
  • Beliefs were
  • a)favored a republican government
  • b)were federalists and wanted a government set
    up like the USA
  • c)extremely idealistic group
  • d)wanted to spread the ideals of the revolution
    all over Europe
  • e)believed in Rousseaus ideals of personal
    liberty
  • f)inexperienced in the practical dealings of
    government

63
Gironde/Girondin Party
  • Key Leaders
  • a)Brissot
  • b)The Rolands
  • c)Marquis de Condorcet
  • d)Charlotte Corday

64
Jacobin Political Party
  • Most radical of the political parties.
  • Beliefs
  • a)wanted to execute the King to remove possible
    threat
  • b)wanted to allow all people to vote
  • c)thought it was okay to use terror to force
    people into accepting the radical ideas

65
Jacobin Party
  • Key Figures
  • a)Jean Paul Marat-publisher of the propaganda
    newspaper the Friend of the People
  • b)Danton-a lawyer and powerful orator okay with
    using terror until it got out of hand. He called
    for it to end and was beheaded by the guillotine.
  • c)Maximilien Robespierre-wanted a republic based
    on the virtues of the Revolution. Became the
    dictator during the National Convention.

66
Economic Problems Facing Legislative Assembly
  • Inflation, unemployment, and falling wages
  • Shortages of food as merchants held back produce
    to raise prices.
  • Girondins did not want to face the severe
    economic problems, so they tried to distract the
    French people by spreading the revolution to the
    rest of Europe through war.

67
Declaration of War
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War on Austria, Prussia, Belgium
  • Crusade to spread Liberty, Equality,
    Fraternity
  • Legislative Assembly declared war on April 20,
    1792.
  • The King supported the war, but for a very
    different reason. He hoped the European powers
    would defeat the revolutionaries and restore the
    Old Regime.
  • Lafayette supported the war, because he was
    ambitious to become a war hero and gain national
    leadership.
  • Marat, other radicals, hoped the war would
    completely destroy the remains of the monarchy in
    France.
  • At first, the French Army was badly defeated by
    the Austrians.
  • Many of the best officers were nobles who had
    fled the country.

70
War on Austria, Prussia, Belgium
  • The French Armys soldiers were poorly trained
    undisciplined.
  • The Girondins were shocked they were losing,
    they tried to blame it on the King other
    enemies of the revolution.
  • In response to this, the King fired the Girondin
    minister vetoed the decrees against the emigres
    non-juring priests.

71
War in Europe
72
Effects of the War
  • The sans-culottes demonstrated in the streets for
    limits on the price of food.
  • The Legislative Assembly was losing control to
    the hands of angry mobs.
  • Food riots broke out in the countryside.
  • When the King vetoed the Legislative Assemblys
    call for 20,000 volunteer soldiers, the
    sans-culottes and peasants took action.
  • A mob of 8,000 Parisians attacked the morning
    session of the Legislative Assembly armed with
    pikes, clubs, guns.
  • They then moved on to the Tuileries Palace where
    they screamed at the King and forced him to wear
    a red liberty cap.
  • Eventually the mob drifted away.

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Effects of the War
  • Austria was set to invade France.
  • The National Guard, the Federes, marched to Paris
    in July 1792.
  • They were not there to maintain order, but to
    take violence against anyone they believed
    opposed the revolution.
  • Radical journalists, like Marat, encouraged the
    violent behavior with inflammatory articles.
  • They demanded peoples justice and death for
    traitors and enemies of the revolution.

75
Effects of War
76
Effects of the War
  • On August 10, 1792, the mobs attacked the
    Tuileries Palace massacred the royal
    bodyguards.
  • This was attack was now as important as the
    Storming of the Bastille.
  • Due to this violence, the Legislative Assembly
    removed Louis as King and imprisoned the whole
    royal family.
  • New elections were to be held for a new
    legislative body known as the National
    Convention.

77
Attack on Tuileries Palace
78
Siege of the Tuileries"This handtinted
engraving depicts the storming of the Tuileries
Palace by what appear to be small groups of
wellorganized soldiers of the Marseilles
National Guard. The positive image of the
sansculottes is reinforced by commentaries that
attribute their action to the "despotism" of
Louis XVI and the "treason" of his agents against
France.
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80
Effects of the War
  • In the meantime, an executive council of 6
    ministers were appointed to run France. 5 were
    Girondins. 1 was Danton, the founder of the
    Cordeliers Club.
  • Danton was willing to sacrifice anything for the
    revolution.
  • Meanwhile, the war continued to go badly.
  • By the end of August 1792, the Austrian,
    Prussian, and émigré troops were crossing into
    France through the Netherlands.
  • It seemed like Paris was going to fall.

81
Battle of Valmy
  • On September 2, 1792, Danton gave a passionate
    speech that called for all citizens to defend
    Paris.
  • As church bells tolled, he said It is time,
    gentlemen, for the Assembly to become a true
    council of war.
  • The bells are a signal to charge against the
    enemies of our countryTo defeat them, we need
    boldness, and always boldness, and France will
    then be saved.
  • Thousands of Parisians marched to the town of
    Valmy and defeated the invaders.
  • On September 20, 1792, they beat the foreigners.

82
Impact of Dantons Speech
  • Danton had thrown out a challenge to all the
    countries who were against the French.
  • The kings in alliance to try to intimidate us.
    We hurl at their feet, as a gage of battle, the
    French kings head.

83
Battle of Valmy
84
September Massacres
  • But the nationalistic rage that Dantons speech
    went beyond the Battle of Valmy.
  • The sans-culottes lashed out at revolutionary
    enemies they saw at home.
  • For 5 days, the bloodthirsty mobs attacked
    butchered imprisoned priests, nobles,
    royalists.
  • 1,200 alone were killed in Paris.
  • It spread all over France to cities like Rheims,
    Lyons, Marseilles.
  • Robespierre, Danton, the Girondins did nothing
    to stop it.

85
September Massacres
86
September Massacres in Paris
  • Saturday, Sept 1 names of clerical prisoners
    were drawn up and a deportation decree passed the
    following day
  • But the wholesale slaughter of criminals
    imprisoned at the Concergerie and the clergy at
    the monastery of the Carmelites had already begun
  • 60 common criminals were killed by mobs at the
    Bernardins prison
  • The local authorities and governments did nothing
    to stop the slaughter

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"Massacre of the Prisoners of St.
Germain Abbey
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Massacre at the Carmelite Convent
  • 150 priests had been held prisoners for a few
    weeks.
  • The mob broke in, and the Archbishop fell to his
    knees, begging for mercy, and was slashed across
    the face by a sword.
  • One prisoner tried to escape up the chimney so
    the jailer shot his musket up the void. When
    this did not work, he lit a fire and when the
    choking man fell down into the hearth, he was
    finished off with swords and hatchets.

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September Massacres
  • Gangs of citizens broke into prisons and
    hospitals where women, the poor, and the insane
    were held.
  • Gangs of citizens broke in with any weapons that
    had and set about killing.
  • They would pause every now and then to eat and
    drink wine, using the mutilated bodies as tables
    and chairs.

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  • Massacre of the Priests"
  • This image, also reproduced from the newspaper
    Rvolutions de Paris, shows crowds massacring
    refractory clergy and prisoners.
  • The panels depict the former convent of the
    Carmelites (where 163 were killed) and the prison
    known as the Force, which had formerly been used
    to incarcerate prostitutes, where approximately
    300 defrocked clergy were executed.

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September Massacres
  • At the Conciergerie, which held a load of
    prisoners awaiting trial, 378 out of 488
    prisoners were hacked to pieces and piled in
    bloody, twitchy heaps.
  • As the carts carrying the corpses away were
    loaded, some of the women who were helping
    stopped every now and again to dance amongst the
    slippery bodies.

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Massacre of Priests
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September Massacres at Saint Firmin
  • September 3 at 530AM a mob arrived at Saint
    Firmin
  • They rounded up the prisoners and took some out
    into the street to execute them.
  • Priests were brought to the courtyards and
    slaughtered with pikes, sabers, and clubs.
  • The priests found on upper levels were killed
    outright.
  • Francois and two other priests were hurled from
    the third floor windows to the ground below
  • Some women gouged out the eyes from cadavers with
    scissors

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12. Massacre des prisonniers. Massacre of the PrisonersCaption Massacre des prisonniers de la Prison du Châtelet et de la Maison de Bicétre le deux et trois Septembre et jours suivantes au nombre d'environ huit centsSource Museum of the French Revolution L88.343Medium EtchingDimensions 9 x 15 cmCommentary (numbers refer to pages in essays)Focuses on a single episode Cameron, 1Precedents Censer-Hunt, 3 Day-Hickman, Discussion FViolence Censer-Hunt, 1
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September Massacres at Versailles
  • Massacre of the prisoners being transported
    through Versailles
  • The mob then broke into the make-shift prison in
    the queens stables and massacred them.
  • 7 or 8 men superficially examined the jailers
    record book and condemnedthis monster, sold to
    the court, an aristocrat
  • Galoy was taken to the kitchen where his legs
    were broken with an iron bar and his skull smashed

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September Massacres Totals
  • Totals are not certain, but
  • 74 priests and 1 layman killed at Villette
  • 32 priests killed at Saint Germain
  • No priests, but female prostitutes, criminals,
    mentally ill, and orphan girls were raped and
    slaughtered at Salpetiere
  • In Paris, the estimate is 1400
  • Victims were stripped of their clothes their
    naked bodies thrown into carts to be taken to the
    Vaugirard Cemetery.
  • Leaving a trail of blood on the ground.
  • Also tossed into wells or buried in shallow
    graves.

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Political Cartoon on September Massacres
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Next Step in the Revolution
  • National Convention met for the first time on
    September 21, 1792.
  • It abolished the monarchy and declared France a
    republic.
  • In November 1792, the National Convention
    declared it would help any other nation revolt
    against their monarchy.
  • Now the revolution was in the hands of radicals
    and mobs.

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Victory of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
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