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A Brief History of Africa

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Title: Africa: A Brief History Author: Tamara Shlagor Last modified by: Glenn Pannell Created Date: 11/17/2008 10:11:08 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Brief History of Africa


1
A Brief History of Africa
2
Origins of Humankind
  • Lucy 3.2 million years old
  • Ancestor of true man
  • Migrated to Asia

3
Lucy
4
Lucy
5
Ancient Egypt
  • Built around Nile River 7,000 b.c.
  • Free movement of people
  • a. Spread Egyptian ideas
  • b. Aided in development
  • c. Expansion of empire
  • Improved agricultural techniques food surplus
  • Develop govt, religion writing

6
Ancient Egypt cont.
  • Agriculture trade
  • Pharaohs (Kings)
  • a. Control 3100 1000 b.c.
  • b. Pyramids
  • c. Control Niles flooding
  • Sahara becomes desert --- Nile now
  • major trade route

7
Bantu Migration
  • Nigeria
  • Migrate out
  • a. Overpopulation
  • b. Slash burn farming
  • Conquer with iron weapons
  • Important
  • a. Central to development
  • b. Spread Niger-Congo language,
  • agriculture iron-working

8
Kingdoms West Africa
  • Ghana, Mali Songhai
  • Factoids
  • 1. Gold
  • 2. Islam (brought by traders)
  • 3. Use of slave labor or sold slaves for

9
Kingdoms South Africa
  • Great Zimbabwe
  • Bantu
  • Built a large city w/ huge walls
  • Significance
  • a. Trade
  • b. Architecture

10
Europeans Arrive
  • Trade on Mediterranean Coast
  • Portugal, Britain Netherlands
  • -15th century coastal areas
  • - Why?
  • Gold, route to India, Christianity
  • -Later, slave trade

11
Slave Trade
  • Common practice
  • Took slaves when conquering neighboring tribes

12
Triangular Trade
  • Slave trade expands w/ Europeans
  • West Africa to Colonies to Europe
  • 10 20 million slaves
  • Effects
  • 1. Broke up families
  • 2. Deplete population in
  • rural areas
  • 3. Destroys villages

13
Middle Passage
  • Trip from Africa to colonies
  • Last up to 6 months
  • Packed in (18 in. space)
  • Disease spreads easily
  • Chained together

14
End of Slave Trade
  • Opposition b/c of ethics morals
  • Industrial Revolution products more valuable
  • Europe U.S. abolish trade by early
  • 1800s
  • Slavery remains legal
  • (Some trade continues on the sly)

15
Prior to Whitey
16
Imperialism
  • Partition
  • Berlin Conference (1884)
  • Scramble for Africa
  • Ground rules for gaining territory respect
  • each others space

17
Imperialism cont.
  • Purposes
  • Power (Land power)
  • Strategic waterways
  • Resources for industry
  • Spread Christianity
  • civilize the natives
  • Settlements
  • move natives into poor land

18
Effects of Imperialism
  • Cultural
  • 1. Create borders with no regard to
    ethnicities
  • (Combine enemies separate allies)
  • 2. Centralized govt
  • 3. Oppression
  • Economy
  • 1. Loss of resources
  • 2. Neglected infrastructure
  • Root cause of the violence today!!!!

19
Desire for Independence
  • Resent European presence
  • Inequalities of colonialism treated as 2nd
    class
  • World Wars opened eyes to racism in Africa
  • WWII drained many European powers
  • Most countries gain independence by 1975
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