Kirishitan%20(????,%20???)%20meant%20Christian(s)%20in%20Japanese%20and%20is%20today%20used%20as%20a%20historiographic%20term%20for%20Christians%20in%20Japan%20in%20the%2016th%20and%2017th%20centuries. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kirishitan ( , ) meant Christian(s) in Japanese and is today used as a historiographic term for Christians in Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kirishitan%20(????,%20???)%20meant%20Christian(s)%20in%20Japanese%20and%20is%20today%20used%20as%20a%20historiographic%20term%20for%20Christians%20in%20Japan%20in%20the%2016th%20and%2017th%20centuries.

  • Kirishitan (????, ???) meant Christian(s) in
    Japanese and is today used as a historiographic
    term for Christians in Japan in the 16th and 17th

  • The missionary activities of Catholicism in Japan
    were started in 1549 and exclusively performed by
    Portugal-sponsored Jesuits until Spain-sponsored
    orders gained access to Japan.

  • The activities of Roman Catholicism were
    sponsored by the kingdoms of Portugal and Spain.
    Proselytizing was an integral part of expanding
    their territories or influence. By the permission
    of the Pope, they divided the non-Christian world
    between themselves.

  • Portugal and Spain disputed about the who got to
    exploit Japan. Since neither could colonize it,
    the exclusive right to spread Christianity in
    Japan meant the exclusive right to trade with
    Japan. Portugal-sponsored Jesuits took a lead in
    proselytizing in Japan over Spaniards.

  • This recognition of reality was approved by Pope
    Gregory XIII's papal bull of 1575, which decided
    that Japan belonged to the Portuguese diocese of
    Macao (across the bay from Hong Kong).

  • In 1588 the diocese of Funai (Nagasaki) was
    founded under the protection of the Portuguese
    king. Thus the Portuguese saw Japan as a
    "province that belonged to the conquest of the

  • In rivalry with Jesuits, Spain-sponsored
    Christian orders sneaked into Japan via Manila.
    While criticizing Jesuit activities, they
    actively lobbied the Pope. Their campaigns
    resulted in Pope Clement VIII's decree of 1600
    that allowed Spanish friars to enter Japan via
    the Portuguese Indies, and Pope Paul V's decree
    of 1608 that abolished the restrictions on the

  • The Portuguese accused Spanish Jesuits of working
    for their homeland instead of Christ. The power
    struggle between Jesuits and the other religious
    orders caused a schism within the diocese of

  • The Roman Catholic world order was challenged by
    the Netherlands and England. This furthered
    divided the Christians, since these two countries
    were officially Protestant.

  • Japan built trade relations with the Netherlands
    and England. Although England withdrew from the
    operations in ten years due to lack of
    profitability, the Netherlands continued to trade
    with Japan and became the only European country
    that maintained trade relations with Japan until
    the 19th century.

  • Jesuits believed that it was very effective to
    seek to influence people in power and thereby
    force the religion down the throats of the
    commoners. It is confirmed that as feudal lords
    converted to Catholicism, the number of believers
    in their territories was drastically increased.

  • Historians presume forced conversion of the
    commoners although Christians would claim that
    massive conversion resulted from influence of
    their lords' "exemplary behavior", not from
    forced conversion. The degree of their religious
    sincerity became clear when their rulers gave up
    the religion or were overthrown and the vast
    number of Christians deserted the churches.

  • The Jesuits in Japan had to maintain economic
    self-sufficiency because they could not expect
    stable and sufficient payment from their patron,
    the King of Portugal. Alternatively, the king
    allowed Jesuits to engage in Portuguese trade
    with Japan.

  • Such economic activity can be found in Francis
    Xavier, the pioneer of Catholic missions in
    Japan. He covered the cost of missionary work by
    selling pepper obtained in Malacca. From 1550s to
    70s, Jesuits covered all necessary expense with
    trade profits and bought land in India.

  • The Jesuits officially recognized commercial
    activity was a fixed-amount entry into the
    Portuguese silk trade between Macau and Nagasaki.
    They financed to a certain amount a trade
    association of Macau which purchased raw silk in
    Canton and sold it in Nagasaki, the center of
    Christianity in Japan.

  • The Jesuits did not confine their commercial
    activity to the official one but expanded into
    unauthorized markets. For the Macau-Nagasaki
    trade, they dealt silk fabrics, gold, musk and
    other goods. In other words, they became

  • It was mainly procurators who brokered Portuguese
    trade. They resided in Macau and Nagasaki, and
    sold to Japanese customers such as the shogunate.
    Jesuits could expect not only rebates but also
    favorable treatments from the authorities. For
    this reason procurator became an important post
    amongst Jesuits in Japan.

  • At the same time, Portuguese merchants required
    procurators who were familiar with Japanese
    customs as they established no permanent trading
    post in Japan. Probably the most notable
    procurator was Joao Rodrigues, who even
    participated in the administration of Nagasaki.

  • Missionaries were not reluctant to take a
    military action if they considered it an
    effective way to Christianize Japan. They often
    associated military action against Japan with the
    conquest of China. They thought that well-trained
    Japanese soldiers who had experienced long civil
    wars would help western countries conquer China.

  • For example, the Jesuit procurator Alessandro
    Valignano persuaded Philippine Governor that it
    was impossible to conquer Japan because the
    Japanese were very brave and always received
    military training but that Japan would benefit
    them when they would conquer China.

  • Francisco Cabral also reported to the King of
    Spain that priests were able to send to China two
    or three thousand Japanese Christian soldiers who
    were brave and were expected to serve the king
    with little pay.

  • The Jesuits provided various kinds of support
    including military support to Kirishitan daimyo
    when they were threatened by non-Kirishitan

  • When the shogun issued the first ban on
    Catholicism in 1587, the Jesuits in Japan planned
    armed resistance. At first they sought help from
    Kirishitan daimyo but the daimyo refused. Then
    they called for a deployment of reinforcements
    from their homeland and colonies.

  • But this plan was abolished by Valignano. Like
    Kirishitan daimyo, he realized that a military
    campaign against the powerful ruler would bring
    catastrophe to Catholicism in Japan. In 1590 the
    Jesuits decided to stop intervening in struggles
    between daimyo, and to disarm themselves.

  • It seems that the Jesuits had no military plan
    during the Edo period since they realized that
    the Tokugawa shogunate was much stronger and more
    stable than the previous administration. In
    contrast, other Christian orders relatively
    openly discussed military options. In 1615 a
    Franciscan emissary of the Viceroy of New Spain
    asked the shogun for land to build a Spanish
    fortress and deepened Japan's suspicion against

  • When the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier arrived,
    Japan was experiencing a nationwide civil war.
    Neither the emperor nor the Ashikaga shogun could
    exercise power over the nation.

  • At first Xavier planned to gain permission for
    building a mission from the emperor but was
    disappointed with the devastation of the imperial
    residence. The Jesuits approached daimyo in
    southwestern Japan and succeeded in converting
    some of these daimyo.

  • In 1587 the shogun banned the ruling class from
    converting to Catholicism as he was concerned
    that forced conversion by them made peasants
    dangerous rebels like the ikko ikki sect of
    earlier years. At the same time he put Nagasaki
    under his direct control to control Portuguese
    trade. In 1597, 26 Kirishitan followers were
    executed in Nagasaki at Hideyoshi's order.

  • The Tokugawa shogunate finally decided to ban
    Catholicism in 1612. This marked the end of open
    Christianity in Japan. The immediate cause of the
    prohibition was a case of fraud but there were
    also other reasons behind it. The shogunate was
    concerned about possible invasion by Iberian
    colonial powers, as had happened in China.

  • Non-religious researchers find it difficult to
    treat martyrdom as history. Instead of giving
    detailed accounts, they just point out the rate
    of martyrdoms there were a thousand martyrs at
    most whereas the number of Christians at their
    peak is estimated at 500 thousand. In contrast,
    Christians attach a great importance to martyrdom
    probably due to the nature of Christianity.

  • The Japanese government used Fumie to identify
    Catholics. Fumie were pictures of the Virgin Mary
    and Christ and the government officials made
    everybody trample on these pictures. People
    reluctant to step on the pictures were identified
    as Catholics and were sent to Nagasaki.

  • The policy of Edo was to turn them from their
    faith. However, if the Catholics refused to
    change their religion, they were tortured.

  • But as many of them still refused to abandon
    their faith, they were killed by the government.
    Execution took place at Nagasaki's Mount Unzen
    where many were dumped into the volcano.

  • The Shimabara Rebellion, led by a young Christian
    boy named Amakusa Shiro Tokisada took place in
    1637. About 27,000 people joined the rebellion,
    but it was crushed by the shogunate. They are not
    considered martyrs since they organized armed