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Unit 1: Part 4

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Mid-(Evil) Times in Europe UNIT 1: PART 4 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1: Part 4


1
Mid-(Evil) Times in Europe
  • Unit 1 Part 4

2
Byzantine Empire
  • Lasted until 1453
  • Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire
  • Known as a Greek and Christian state
  • Greek Language replaced Latin
  • Strong Christian influence
  • Most inhabitants still considered themselves
    Romans
  • Constantinople considered a prized possession

3
Extent of Byzantine Empire 527-565 CE
4
Constantinople
  • Constantinople is
  • the home city of the empire
  • Gateway between Asia and Europe
  • PRIME location for trade
  • Melting pot of cultures and ideas
  • Constant target for foreign invaders
  • Remained the Capital city of the Eastern Empire
    even after the fall of the Western Empire
  • Heavily fortified

5
The Great Schism
  • Schism-divide or split
  • Church leaders in the East and West differed on
    their views of Christianity
  • Major Issues
  • Icons holy images of Jesus, Virgin Mary or
    Saints
  • Some had these in their homes and Churches,
    others believed this was wrong (iconoclast)
  • Pope vs. Patriarch
  • Byzantines looked to church leader (Patriarch),
    did not recognize the Pope in Rome
  • Church Doctrine and Practice

6
Medieval Times/Middle Ages
  • 476-1300 A.D. Time between the Fall of Western
    Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance
  • German tribes replaced the Romans as the rulers
    of Western Europe
  • MISERABLE time for most people
  • Feudal system develops
  • Advances and learning made by Greeks and Romans
    disappeared
  • Most Europeans lived in fear of
  • Barbarian attacks
  • Disease
  • famine

7
ARG Vikings Attack!
  • 800-900s
  • Vikings from Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden,
    Denmark)
  • Coastal cities in fear of constant attacks from
    Vikings
  • Traveled south along the coast of Europe and
    British Isles during Spring and Summer
  • Raid and Loot settlements
  • Take captives for slaves
  • Eventually settled in Normandy, France

8
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9
Europes Feudal System
  • After the fall of Rome, people looked for
    protection from criminals and invaders
  • Feudalism System of protection that developed in
    Europe during the Middle Ages
  • a system of mutual obligation (sort of)
  • Based on loyalty and protection
  • Fief- a grant of land given to vassals
  • Became hereditary passing from one male to
    another

10
I didnt know we had a King
  • Social Hierarchy
  • King
  • Lord
  • Vassal
  • Peasant
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v-8bqQ-C1PSE

11
Role of the Church
  • After schism, there were 2 groups of Christians
  • Orthodox
  • Roman Catholic
  • Christian Church replaced the Roman Empire as
    Europes source of leadership and stability
  • Pope had supreme authority
  • Europes largest landowner
  • Many church officials were feudal lords
  • Could not question church techniques or authority
  • Church had its own code of lawcontrol over
    region and its people
  • The Wealth and influence of the Church led to
    corruption
  • Church became the wealthiest institution
  • Had the power to tax (tithe was 1/10 of income)

12
Common features
13
Important Events of the Middle Ages
  • Crusades
  • The Magna Carta
  • The Bubonic Plague
  • All lead to the Renaissance in the 1400s!

14
The Crusades
  • An attempt by European Christians to retake the
    Holy Land from the Muslims during the Middle Ages
  • 1000 A.D Muslims conquer Jerusalem
  • 1095 A.D. Pope calls upon European Kings and
    lords to raise armies
  • Result
  • 1291 Crusades end and Muslims regain control
  • Europeans fail to capture the Holy Land

15
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16
Benefits of the Crusades
  • Increased trade between Europe and Asia
  • Europeans were reintroduced to the ideas and
    texts of the Greeks and Romans by the Muslims
  • One Factor that led to the Renaissance

17
We have a rodent problem!
  • The Bubonic Plague swept through Europe
  • 1347-1351
  • Carried from Asia to Europe on trading ships
  • Rats carried fleas infected with the disease
  • 1/3 of European pop. Died because of the Plague

18
Impact of the Plague
  • Impact
  • Catholic Church lost power b/c peoples faith in
    God was shaken
  • Workers earned better pay b/c there were fewer of
    them
  • Entire towns died off
  • Mass graves, not enough room or time to bury ppl
  • Better pay and education lead to peasant
    uprisings against kings and lords

19
Pics
20
First Hand Accounts
  • At the time no one knew that rats were the
    carriers of the disease, they blamed higher
    powers
  • Some say that the plague descended upon the
    human race through the influence of the heavenly
    bodies, others that it was punishment signifying
    Gods righteous anger at our wicked way of life.
  • Others thought a major earthquake released toxic
    fumes

21
Magna Carta
  • Means Great Paper
  • Magna Carta one of the most important documents
    written in the history of democracy. Guarantees
    basic rights and limits the power of the
    government
  • Written in England in 1215
  • Originally written to protect the rights of
    English lords from the King

22
  • The Magna Carta stated
  • Excessive (a lot) taxes could not be collected by
    the king
  • Those accused of crimes would be judged by a jury
    of peers
  • The king must follow the law or be removed from
    office

23
Changes to Europe
  • Brought about b/c of the Crusades
  • New military techniques- Crossbow
  • Advanced trade between Italian cities and Holy
    Land
  • Increase in power of European Kings due to large
    number of noble class deaths

24
A Growing Culture
  • 1. Education grew as the cities expanded
  • Nobles and clergy most educated
  • 4 elite universities built
  • Law, medicine, theology studied

25
  • 2. Architecture
  • Gothic Style- named after barbarian goths
  • New Churches were considered monuments to God
  • Common features
  • High walls
  • Flying buttresses (support)
  • Tall spires

26
Gothic Architecture
27
  • 3. Recovery of Greek Texts
  • Brought back works of Aristotle
  • Scholasticism- bringing faith and reason together
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