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Mesopotamia

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Egyptian Timeline Life in Egypt A Nobleman at Work Wall paintings from the tomb of Nebamun, a Theban nobleman (c. 1400 BCE) Measuring Time Symbol for Eternity The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mesopotamia


1
Ancient Egypt
2
Egyptian Timeline
http//www.wsu.edu8000/dee/EGYPT/TIMELINE.HTM
3
Life in Egypt
4
A Nobleman at Work
  • The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
    http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html

5
Wall paintings from the tomb of Nebamun, a Theban
nobleman (c. 1400 BCE)
What do these pictures tell you about his daily
life?
Fowling
The British Museum. Egyptian Life.http//www.ancie
ntegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
6
Measuring Time
  • Symbol for Eternity

7
The Water Clock
  • At night, the temple priest carefully watched the
    water clock. As the evening fell, the clock was
    filled with water. During the night, the water
    dripped out a hole in the bottom. He checked the
    water level during the night to determiine when
    to perform nightly rituals.

The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
8
Cartouches used to measure years via reign of
princes
9
Egyptian Homes
Materials Mud Bricks for Houses
The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
10
Decoration from the Palace of Amenhotep III at of
Malkata
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
11
Models of Ancient Egyptian Houses(second one
terracotta, with front courtyard)
Three-story townhouse?
Handicapped accessibility?
The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
12
Painting of Typical Three-Story House of
Wealthier Egyptians
13
A Noblemans Estate
.http//nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/ho
using.htm 
14
Floor plan of a nobleman's compound, Akhetaten
(El Amarna)
  • adjacent garden and agricultural yards -
    separated each other by a wall
  • The estate
  • largely self sufficient
  • run by a steward but supervised by the main wife
  • including silos and stables, was surrounded by a
    wall, the entrance guarded by a lodge keeper.
  • Servants quarters - separated from the main house
    by a yard.
  • Workshops, stables, storage rooms and kitchen -
    near by.
  • The master's family - in the main house
  • Harem -womens quarters (not like Muslim harems)

http//nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/hou
sing.htm
15
Gardens
Royal Couple in a Garden
.http//nefertiti.iwebland.com/timelines/topics/ho
using.htm
16
Traditional Workers Housing
  • At Gizeh 4th dynasty apartments have been found
    consisting of a small vestibule, a main room, and
    a small niche or inner room which probably served
    as a bedroom.

Basic 2½ room flat shotgun style
http//nefertiti.iwebland.com/building/deir_el_med
ine.htm
17
Carpentry
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
18
Carpentry
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
  • Tools of Early Dynasty
  • Adse

19
Ancient Egyptian Furniture
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/index.html
20
First Dynasty Bedframe
  • structure of a bedframe leg
  • (dynasty uncertain)

Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
21
Wooden Box Old Kingdom
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
22
Table - Middle Kingdom
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
23
Stool - New Kingdom
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
24
Chair, Eighteenth Dynasty The Louvre, Paris,
France
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
http//www.humanities-interactive.org/ancient/tut/
768/ex080_03d.jpg
25
Chair of Sitamum, daughter of Amenhotep III
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
26
Shrine Box, King TutenkhamenThe Egyptian Museum,
Cairo
Detail of lid
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
http//www.humanities-interactive.org/ancient/tut/
768/ex080_03d.jpg
27
Stool, King Tutenkhamen The Egyptian Museum,
Cairo
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
http//www.humanities-interactive.org/ancient/tut/
768/ex080_03d.jpg
28
Chest on Legs, King Tutenkhamen The Egyptian
Museum, Cairo
29
Golden Thrones of King Tutenkhamen The Egyptian
Museum, Cairo
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
http//www.humanities-interactive.org/ancient/tut/
768/ex080_03d.jpg. Silverman, David P. 50
Wonders of Tutankhamun. New York Crown
Publishers. 1978.
30
Inlaid Chair of King Tutenkhamen
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
31
Golden Shrine of King Tutenkhamen
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
32
Small Container in the Shape of a Double
Cartouche of King Tutenkhamen
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
33
Daily Life Family Structure
  • Nuclear Family The father was responsible for
    the economic well-being of the family, and the
    mother supervised the household and cared for the
    upbringing of the children. Although Egyptian
    children had toys, . . . much of their time was
    spent preparing for adulthood. . . . Peasant
    children accompanied their parents into the
    fields the male offspring of craftsmen often
    served as apprentices to their fathers.
    Privileged children sometimes received formal
    education to become scribes or army officers.

Life in Ancient Egypt. http//www.carnegiemuseums.
org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/dailylife.htm
34
Daily Life - Furnishings (Simple in design)
  • The most common piece of furniture was a low
    stool, used by all Egyptians including the
    pharaoh. These stools were made from wood, had
    leather or woven rush seats, and had three or
    four legs.

Life in Ancient Egypt. http//www.carnegiemuseums.
org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/dailylife.htm
35
Copies of the few simple furnishings in the
common Egyptian home
Most kitchens were equipped with a cylindrical,
baked clay stove for cooking. Food was stored in
wheel-made pottery. The basic cooking equipment
was a two-handled pottery saucepan.
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
36
Clothing simple style
  • Kilts for men
  • Long, straight dresses for women

Methethy (varies slightly from canon of
proportions remarkably well preserved) from
Sakkara Late V Dynasty (c. 2420 BCE Polychromed
wood31 5/8 high
Nelson Gallery of Art Atkins Museum. Handbook.
Volume 1.Kansas City. 1973.
37
Elaborate Costume Jewelry for both Sexes
Types earrings, bracelets, anklets, rings, and
beaded necklaces. Components jewelry many
minerals including amethyst, garnet, jasper,
onyx, turquoise, and lapis lazuli, as well as
copper, gold, and shells amulets to ward off
evil.             
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
38
Cosmetics
Cosmetics Bottle Top
  • Uses for appearance and for personal hygiene
    and health
  • Many cosmetics found in tombs - vital importance
    against the hot Egyptian sun and dry winds.
  • Items Eye paint, both green and black, is
    probably the most characteristic of the Egyptian
    cosmetics.
  • Sources green pigment, malachite, made from
    copper black paint (kohl) made from lead or soot
    - was usually kept in a small pot with a flat
    bottom, wide rim, tiny mouth, and a flat,
    disk-shaped lid.

http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
39
Games Senet - a board game from ancient Egypt
  • Board games were very common in ancient Egypt
    and people from all levels of society played
    them. Many game boards from ancient Egypt have
    been found by archaeologists. However, the rules
    explaining how to play these games have not
    survived. By studying game boards and other
    evidence, experts have made some educated guesses
    about how these games were played.  The British
    Museum. Egyptian Life. http//www.ancientegypt.co.
    uk/life/home.html

40
How to play Senet
  • Throw the sticks to see how many squares to move
    your piece forward.
  • If you throw a one, four, or six, you get an
    extra turn.
  • You can't land on one of your own pieces.
  • If you land on the other player's piece, you
    switch places with them. However, you can't
    switch with them if they have two or more pieces
    in a row.
  • If the other player has three or more pieces in a
    row, you can't pass them.
  • Some squares are safe' squares and some are
    danger' squares. You will learn what they are as
    you play.
  • The first player to get all of their pieces off
    the board wins the game.
  •  The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
    http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html

41
TransportationBoat with Cockswain and
OarsmenXII Dynasty (c. 2000-1788 BCE)Painted
wood 38 ½ long
  • Nelson Gallery of Art Atkins Museum. Handbook.
    Volume 1.Kansas City. 1973.

42
Artwork
De La Croiux, Horst, et al. Gardners Art Through
The Ages, 9E. New York. Harcourt, Brace
Jovanovich. 1991.
  • Media wall murals, furniture, wood and stone
    statues, painting on papyrus scrolls, pottery
    painting
  • Subject Matter royalty, gods, nature, daily life

43
The standard Egyptian relief portrait, as it
came to be established during the Old Kingdom,
required each part of the body to be presented in
strict proportion, with its essential aspect to
the viewer (shoulders forward, head
turned, legs sideways and striding). An icon of
Egyptian art, anatomically impossible, it's also
a strangely lifelike arrangement
Canon of Proportions
44
Music and DancingDetail of wall painting from
tomb of NebamunThebes, C. 14000 BCEFragment 11
¾ x 2w7 ¼British Museum, London
De La Croiux, Horst, et al. Gardners Art Through
The Ages, 9E. New York. Harcourt, Brace
Jovanovich. 1991.
45
Ancient Egypt en toto was formed during the Early
Dynastic period from two basic areas Upper
Egypt and Lower Egypt.
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
46
  • Upper Egypt was the long, narrow strip of
    ancient Egypt located south of the Delta. This
    area is composed of four topographic zones the
    Nile River, the floodplain, the low desert, and
    the high desert. Each of these zones was
    exploited differently by the ancient Egyptians.
  • Lower Egypt was west of the delta and Upper
    Egypt.

http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
47
Geography

The ancient Egyptians thought of Egypt as being divided into two types of land, the 'black land' and the 'red land'. The 'black land' was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians used this land for growing their crops. This was the only land in ancient Egypt that could be farmed because a layer of rich, black silt was deposited there every year after the Nile flooded.          The British Museum. Egyptian Life. http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
48
Geography
The 'red land' was the barren desert that protected Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies. They also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious metals and semi-precious stones. The British Museum. Egyptian Life. http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html

49
Egyptian Religion
50
Mythology. Reprinted from the The World Book
Encyclopedia. Field Enterprises Educational
Corporation. 1973.
51
The Creation Story of Egyptian Dieties
  • Link to Gods and Goddesses
  • http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/story/main.htm
    l
  • (Source British Museum)

52
  • The final step in the transition to the afterlife
    was the judgment by Osiris, god of the
    underworld, in a ritual known as the Weighing of
    the Heart. If a person had led a decent life, he
    or she would be judged worthy of eternal life.
    Many spells and rituals were designed to ensure a
    favorable judgment and were written in the
    papyrus or linen "Book of the Dead."

Life in Ancient Egypt. http//www.carnegiemuseums.
org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/dailylife.htm
53
Mythology. Reprinted from the The World Book
Encyclopedia. Field Enterprises Educational
Corporation. 1973.
54
  • All ancient Egyptians believed in the afterlife
    and spent their lives preparing for it. Pharaohs
    built the finest tombs, collected the most
    elaborate funerary equipment, and were mummified
    in the most expensive way. Others were able to
    provide for their afterlives according to their
    earthly means. Regardless of their wealth,
    however, they all expected the afterlife to be an
    idealized version of their earthly existence.

Life in Ancient Egypt. http//www.carnegiemuseums.
org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/dailylife.htm
55
Annubis
Mythology. Reprinted from the The World Book
Encyclopedia. Field Enterprises Educational
Corporation. 1973.
56
Ka
spirit which came into being at the time of a
person's birth
Life in Ancient Egypt. http//www.carnegiemuseums.
org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/dailylife.htm
57
Ba
The ba was spirit-like, most often depicted . .
. as a human-headed bird. . . . It could travel
with the sun barque across the sky on its daily
journey or leave the tomb and visit the world of
the living, returning each night to rejoin the
deceased. The ba often was present alongside the
deceased at his judgment before Osiris.
on a Coffin Fragmentgessoed wood, paint)Dynasty
XXI(ca. 1070-945 B.C.)Provenience
unknownLength 33 cm width 27 cmACC. 2983-6551
Life in Ancient Egypt. http//www.carnegiemuseums.
org/cmnh/exhibits/egypt/dailylife.htm
58
Statue of Amenhotep Being Conducted into the
Afterlife by Amon
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
59
Amun and his (the Gods Wife) Hemet Netjer nt
Imen
  • Hemet served as wife and high priestess of Amun
    (a god-king) in the temple of Amun. Other kings
    wives later fill similar roles.

Parons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.ne
t/karnak.htm
60
Other God Wives/Priestesses
Neferure
Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
61
Priests in Ancient Egypt
Parsons, Marie. Priests in Ancient Egypt.
http//www.touregypt.net/karnak.htm
62
Predynasty Burial poles and Coffin
Killen, Geoffrey. Cambridge University.
http//www.geocities.com/gpkillen/materials.htm
63
Shawabaty Statuettes of Tutto accompany him to
afterlife
Silverman, David P. 50 Wonders of Tutankhamun.
New York Crown Publishers. 1978.
64
Burial Inscriptions
To protect the spirit of the deceased, scenes and
inscriptions were written on coffins and the
walls of tombs. These texts included such
writings as adaptations of the myth about the
death of Osiris and spells to protect the
deceased on his or her dangerous journey to the
underworld. Figures known as shabtis functioned
as servants for the deceased.
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
65
This ancient boat, displayed in The Walton Hall
of Ancient Egypt, dates to about 1859 B.C. It may
have been used in the funeral rituals of
Senwosret III, a powerful Dynasty XII Pharaoh.
Study of the boat has yielded important
information about boat building in ancient Egypt.
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
66
Psychostasis (soul raising) of Hu-Nufer,
ThebesPainted papyrus scroll2 3/4 highBritish
Museum, London
De La Croiux, Horst, et al. Gardners Art Through
The Ages, 9E. New York. Harcourt, Brace
Jovanovich. 1991.
67
Wooden statuette of a woman holding metal snakes
Dynasty XIII (1786-1633 BCE)
(The Manchester Museum, University of
Manchester, England)
  • Egyptians viewed magic favorably.. The goddess
    of magic, Heka (heka is also the Egyptian word
    for 'magic'), to whom shrines were dedicated in
    Lower Egypt, was depicted in human form
    (sometimes with a snake head) holding a
    snake-shaped wand in each hand. The snake wand,
    which was also used by magicians, probably
    represented Weret-hekau.

Whitcomb,Christopher L.C. E. Minoan Snake
Goddess. http//witcombe.sbc.edu/snakegoddess/mino
anwomen.html
68
Temple Complexes
  • LINK http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/temples/home.
    html
  • (Source British Museum)

69
Archeological Sites in Egypt
The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
70
Temples
  • The ancient Egyptians believed that temples
    were the homes of the gods and goddesses. Every
    temple was dedicated to a god or goddess and he
    or she was worshipped there by the temple priests
    and the pharoh.

British Museum. http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/temp
les/home.html
71
Temple at Luxor typical temple components and
layout
  • The large temple buildings were made of stone
    to . . . last forever. Their walls were covered
    with scenes . . . carved onto the stone then
    brightly painted. These scenes showed the pharaoh
    fighting in battles and performing rituals with
    the gods and goddesses.

The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html
72
Karnak(Luxor)
Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
73
Full map of Karnak Temple
  • http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/gallery.cgi?
    actionviewlink_Tours/Karnakimagekarnak_01.jpg
    imgttimg

74
The Temple(s) of Karnak
  • actually three main temples, smaller enclosed
    temples, and several outer temples.
  • built and enlarged over a thirteen hundred year
    period.
  • main temples Mut, Montu, and Amun - enclosed by
    enormous brick walls.
  • The main complex,
  • Temple of Amun - in the center of the entire
    complex.
  • Temple of Montu - north of the Temple of Amun,
  • Temple of Ptah - next to Temple of Montu on the
    inside of the enclosure wall
  • Temple of Mut to the south
  • Temple dedicated to Khonshu
  • Temple of Opet next to temple of Khonshu
  • A number of smaller temples and chapels spread
    about Karnak
  • Temple of Osiris Hek-Djet (Hedadjet) - inside the
    enclosure wall of the Temple of Amun.

Pasons, Marie. Tour Egypt.. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
75
  • Open Air Museum - north of the first courtyard,
    across from the Sacred Lake

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
76
Sacred Lake
  • Possibly built under Amenhotep III

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
77
Second Pylon of Karnak, built by Ramasses II
  • The Hypostyle Hall, past the Second Pylon, is
    considered to be one of the world's greatest
    architectural masterpieces.
  • Begun during the reign of Ramessess I.
  • Continued under Seti I, who also built the Temple
    of Abydos and many other temples.
  • Completed by Seti's son, Ramesses II.

http//www.touregypt.net/karnak.htm
78
The main Avenue running West to East within the
complex leading towards the Hypostyle Hall  
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
79
Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
Ram Headed Sphinxes
symbols of the god Amon guards for the Pharaoh
80
The Avenue of Rams leading to the West Gate of
the Karnak Temple Complex  
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/gallery.cgi?a
ctionviewlink_Tours/Karnakimagekarnak_01.jpg
imgttimg
81
Temple of Montu
  • Founded by Amenhotep III

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
82
Temple of Amun-Ra
Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
83
  • Amon Ra at Night

Parons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.ne
t/karnak.htm
84
Statue at the Temple of Mut
Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
85
The Colossal Statue of Pinedjem in the first
courtyard
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
86
  • Two views of the obelisk of Tutmose I
    (c.1493-1479 B.C.). Each side of the obelisk has
    three vertical lines of inscription, the central
    one a dedication by Thutmose I.

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm http//www.virtual-egypt.com/galler
y/ gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_
Tours/Karnakimagekarnak_01.jpgimgttimg
87
Close up of Lotus Column
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
88
Hieroglyphic inscription describing the creation
of the obelisks at Karnak Temple  
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
89
An example of how the Pharaohs were erased by
later cultures who invaded Egypt
  • Destruction of an image was symbolic of death in
    the afterlife.  

http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
90

Deeper glyphs were done to prevent the
destruction of images and preserve names through
eternity.
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
91
Akh-Menu of Tuthmosis III (The Festival
HallXVIII Dynasty aka the "Temple of Millions
of Years" or "Hall of Annals"  

http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
92
Abu SimbelNubia
93
Abu Simbel in its new location
http//www.touregypt.net/abusimbel.htm
94
  • Not only are the two temples at Abu Simbel
    among the most magnificent monuments in the world
    but their removal and reconstruction was an
    historic event in itself. When the temples (280
    km from Aswan) were threatened by submersion in
    Lake Nasser at completion of the Aswan High Dam,
    the Egyptian Government enlisted the support of
    UNESCO and the world to salvage the site
    (1964-68). The two temples were dismantled and
    raised over 60 meters up the sandstone cliff
    where they had been built more than 3,000 years
    before. . . . They were reassembled, in the exact
    same relationship to each other and the sun, and
    covered with an artificial mountain. Most of the
    joins in the stone have now been filled by
    antiquity experts, but inside the temples it is
    still possible to see where the blocks were cut

http//www.touregypt.net/abusimbel.htm
95
  • One of the most famous sites today to visit in
    Egypt

96
Wide view of Carved Relief next to Abu Simbel.
Once part of the natural mountain but with the
construction of the facade this piece was placed
alone right next to the temple.  
97
All four statues of Ramses II
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
  • Abu Simbel is a temple built by Ramesses II
    (c.1279-1213 B.C.) in ancient Nubia, where he
    wished to demonstrate his power and his divine
    nature. Four colossal (65 feet/20 meters high)
    statues of him sit in pairs flanking the
    entrance. The head and torso of the statue to the
    left of the entrance fell during ancient times,
    probably the result of an earthquake.

98
Shrine located next to the last statue
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
99
Relief on left wall of shrine indicating an
offering to Ramses II  
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
gallery.cgi?actionviewlink_ Tours/Karnakimage
karnak_01.jpgimgttimg
100
Osirian Pillars

Size 16 metres in width and 18 metres in
length Layout 2 rows of 4 massive square
pillars, each fronted by a 9 metres tall figure
of the king in Osiride posture. Object of
support a ceiling decorated with vultures.
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Osirian Statue
The four statues of Ramses II on the north side
of the hall. These statues wear the double crown.
The ones in front of them only wear the symbol of
upper Egypt (the white crown). The king is
sculpted in an Osiride posture.
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Ceiling with Vultures
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Ramses II Smiting His EnemiesTemple walls are
filled with similar images.  
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The Sanctuary(61 meters inside the mountain )
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
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  • Famous because on 22 February and 22 October the
    first sun shines of the day illuminate the
    statues of Ramses II, Amon Ra (the sun god), and
    Ra-Harakhty (god of the rising sun), leaving Ptah
    (god of the underworld and darkness) in the dark.
  • When the temple was moved, experts calculated
    the exact position and orientation to reconstruct
    it, so that the twice-yearly event could take
    place for some millenniums more.  

105
Ramesis II Making Offerings to the Gods
http//www.virtual-egypt.com/gallery/
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Sunken Relief of the god Hapy, at Abu Simbel
  • As implied by his pregnant look, his androgyny
    suggests the fertility of the land resulting from
    the Nile flood, which he personified.

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107
View of Abu Simbel from the Temple of Hathor  
Temple of Ramesses II primarily is dedicated to
Re-Harakhte, and that of his wife, Nefertari is
dedicated to Hathor
http//web.kyoto-inet.or.jp/org/orion/eng/hst/egyp
t/abusimbel.html http//www.touregypt.net/abusimb
el.htm
108
Six giant sculptures of the Queen Nefertari and
of Ramses II himself decorate the facade of
Nefertaris temple
  • Much simpler than the one of Ramses II,
    Nefertaris temple has only a hypostyle hall and
    sanctuary. Hypostile hall walls are decorated
    with reliefs of Ramses II, of his wife Nefertari
    and of the main Egyptian gods.

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Hieroglyphics in the Hypostile Hall of the
Nefertari Temple  
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110
Close up of a beautifully painted pillar of
Thoth, God of Science and Writing(Nefertaris
Temple)  
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111
Temple of Djoser
Inscription of Djosier
http//ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/zoser/zoser.html
112
Plan of the Precinct of Djoser
http//ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/zoser/zoser.html
113
Axonometric Reconstruction of th Precinct of
Djoser
http//ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/zoser/zoser.html
114
Columns at Djoser
http//ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/zoser/18.gif
115
House of the North - Engaged Relief Walls at
Djoser
http//ccat.sas.upenn.edu/arth/zoser/18.gif
116
Egyptian Dynasties
  • Outstanding Events, People, and Places

117
King Tutenkhamun
Death mask
118
Innermost Burial Coffin of King
Tutkenhamenruled 1361-52 BCEGold inlay of
enaman and semiprecious stones6 ½ longEgyptian
Museum, Cairo
De La Croiux, Horst, et al. Gardners Art Through
The Ages, 9E. New York. Harcourt, Brace
Jovanovich. 1991.
119
The War Machine that was Egypt Period
Technology
New Technologies
Archaic (Basic Weaponry) Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow
Predynastic Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow Mace
Late Predynastic Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow Mace Shield
Old Kingdom Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow Mace Shields QuiverBattle Axe with a semi-circular ax-head
http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/milit
ary/tech.html
120
Period Technology
New Technologies
Middle KingdomSpear Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow Mace Shields QuiverBattle Axe with semi-circular ax-head Battle Axewith a scalloped ax-head
2nd Intermediate Period Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow Mace Shields QuiverBattle Axe with semi-circular ax-head Battle Axe with scalloped ax-head ChariotComposite BowBattle Axewith narrow ax-head
http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/milit
ary/tech.html
121
Period Technology
New Technologies
New Kingdon Spear CudgelsClubs Throwing-sticksDagger Bow Mace Shields Quiver Chariot Bow Battle Axe with semi-circular ax-head Battle Axewith scalloped ax-head Composite Battle Axewith a narrow ax-head Scimitar "sickle sword"Body Armor
Rationale for viewing this information to
comprehend the evolution of Egyptian military
might and why they managed to conquer territory
all the way to the Euphrates River.
http//www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/milit
ary/tech.html
122
Sites associated with Egypt from Predynastic to
Byzantine times
  • Virtual Egypt. http//www.virtual-egypt.com/newht
    ml/maps/index.html

123
Egyptian Dynasties
  • Predynasty c. 5000-3100
  • Early Dynasty c. 3100 BCE first unity
  • Old Kingdom c. 2686 2181 BCE
  • First intermediate era political uprisings
  • Middle Kingdom 2055-1650 BCE
  • Second Intermediate era political uprisings
  • Middle Kingdom 1550-1069 BCE
  • Third Intermediate era political uprisings
  • Late Kingdom 1069-774 BCE
  • Ptolemaic Era 332-30 BCE
  • Roman 30 BCE-395 CE

124
Egyptian Architectural Contributions
  • Obelisks, pyramids and all the other
    Egyptian-derived forms, which for centuries. . .
    permeated Western art and architecture (the
    Egyptian Hall in London, the original Tombs in
    lower Manhattan, the old suspension bridge over
    the Neva in St. Petersburg, the Pyramid at the
    Louvre in Paris . . . proved that the Egyptians
    succeeded, to a degree probably even they didn't
    anticipate, in leaving a legacy to outlast
    themselves.

Kimmelman, Michael. Egyptian Art The Mysterious
Lure of an Old Friend. The New York Times.
17September, 1999. http//www.virtualegypt.com/new
html/articles/Egyptian20Art20The20Mysterious20
Lure20of20an20Old20Friend.htm
125
Prince Hemiunu, Great Pyramid Architect
  • A landmark of the Old Kingdom from the Fourth
    Dynasty (2575-2465 B.C.) is the famous seated
    statue of Hemiunu, the prince and vizier in
    charge of building the Great Pyramid
  • The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Kimmelman, Michael. Egyptian Art The
Mysterious Lure of an Old Friend. The New York
Times. 17September, 1999. http//www.virtualegypt.
com/newhtml/articles/Egyptian20Art20The20Myster
ious20Lure20of20an20Old20Friend.htm
126
Hemiunu
  • . . . . He is kind of a pyramid himself, a
    triangular mass of limestone, life size,
    straight-backed, feet firmly planted side by
    side, hands resting on his lap, one palm
    down, the other closed, with a look on his
    face of divine indifference. His girth
    contrasts sharply with the other statues of Early
    Egypt.

Kimmelman, Michael. Egyptian Art The Mysterious
Lure of an Old Friend. The New York Times.
17September, 1999. http//www.virtualegypt.com/new
html/articles/Egyptian20Art20The20Mysterious20
Lure20of20an20Old20Friend.htm
127
Khufus Pyramid The Great Pyramid
  • Khufu's pyramid was only part of the complex
    built for him at Giza. This complex had many
    different parts
  • Three pyramids for Khufu's queens.
  • Several deep pits containing boats that had been
    buried.
  • A mortuary temple where Khufu would be worshipped
    after he died.
  • A causeway leading from the pyramid complex down
    to the valley temple.
  • A valley temple where the pharaoh's funeral would
    begin.
  • A small 'satellite' pyramid.
  • The mastaba tombs of nobles
  • LINK http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/pyramids/expl
    ore/main.html.
  • The British Museum. Egyptian Life.
    http//www.ancientegypt.co.uk/life/home.html

128
The Great Pyramid
Ancient Egyptian Culture. http//www.mnsu.edu/emus
eum/prehistory/egypt/archaeology/egyptology.html
129
Kings Valley
The Valley of the Kings
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130
The back of a sculpture of Iai-ib and Khuaut,
husband and wife in intimate detailThe
Metropolitan Museum of Art

Kimmelman, Michael. Egyptian Art The Mysterious
Lure of an Old Friend. The New York Times.
17September, 1999. http//www.virtualegypt.com/new
html/articles/Egyptian20Art20The20Mysterious20
Lure20of20an20Old20Friend.htm
131
Prince Rahotep and wife Norfretc. 2650
BCEpainted limestoneheight 47 ¼Cairo Museum
Janson, H.W. History of Art. Englewood-Cliffs
NewJersey Prentice Hall. July, 1963.
132
Egyptian Festivals, Religious and/or Political
133
  • Egyptians enjoyed a day or two celebrating . . .
    for example, the Beautiful Feast of the Valley
    (below) .

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
134
Festival of Opet
  • Thebans could ask the god questions (oracles)
    that could be answered by a simple yes or no. A
    man might ask if his brother in another town was
    in good health, If the barge dipped forward, the
    answer was yes if it backed away, the reply was
    no. Commoners were also allowed to put questions
    to a god in his temple. For these exceptional
    times, the fortunate citizens who were allowed
    into the temple were escorted to special audience
    rooms. The priests would convey the answers
    either through a concealed window high up in the
    wall or from inside a hollow statue.

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
135
The Festival of Opet
  • Boisterous Theban festival begun in Eighteenth
    dynasty and held during the second civil month,
    set by the lunar calendar
  • Celebrated for twenty-seven days in the Twentieth
    Dynasty

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
136
Religious festival at Anum at Luxor Temple
Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
137
Djosers Heb-Sed Festival
  • Usually celebrated 30 years after a kings rule
    and thereafter, every three years.
  • Very important ritual symbolizing regeneration
  • Meant to assure a long reign in the pharaohs
    afterlife.

Parsons, Marie. Tour Egypt. http//www.touregypt.n
et/karnak.htm
138
Airview of Djoser's Step Pyramid and surrounding
complex at Saqqara. The pyramid to the right was
built by Userkaf at the onset of the 5th Dynasty.
Source Lehner, Complete Pyramids, p. 86.
http//www.ancient-egypt.org/saqqara/index.html
139
Ptolemaen Period
140
Philae -
  • Trajins Kiosk

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Philae Recently Restored Reliefs
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Philae- Cartouche of unknown Pharoh
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143
Philae -A last look down the West Colonnade in
front of the First Pylon  
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144
Egyptian Timeline
http//www.wsu.edu8000/dee/EGYPT/TIMELINE.HTM
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