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Forensic Anthropology and Odontology

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Forensic Anthropology. the study of human skeletal remains to determine sex, age, race, and time of death in an effort to identify an individual – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Forensic Anthropology and Odontology


1
Forensic Anthropology and Odontology
2
  • Forensic Anthropology
  • the study of human skeletal remains to determine
    sex, age, race, and time of death in an effort to
    identify an individual
  • Definition has been expanded to include these
    subtopics
  • forensic taphonomy interpretation of outdoor
    death scenes
  • forensic archaeology recovery of scattered or
    buried remains
  • newer topics of facial reconstruction and age
    progression
  • Anthros is Greek for humankind or man and logos
    means the study of.

3
Forensic Anthropology
Pictures courtesy of Charles Comer
4
  • Determination of Sex
  • Pelvis best
  • females have wider subpubic angle
  • females have a wider sciatic notch
  • females have a broad pelvic inlet
  • Females have a larger pelvic brim

5
  • Determination of Sex
  • Pelvis best
  • females have wider subpubic angle
  • females have a wider sciatic notch
  • females have a broad pelvic inlet

6
  • Determination of Sex
  • Cranium second best
  • Crests and ridges more pronounced in males (A, B,
    C)
  • Chin significantly more square in males (E)
  • Jaw (I, E), mastoid process wide and robust in
    males
  • Forehead slopes more in males (F)

7
Determination of Sex Other bones are not usually
as good an indicator regarding sex
8
  • Determination of Race
  • The cranium is the only reliable bone and, even
    then, can only tell general category as below
  • Mongoloid (all of Asian and Native American
    decent)
  • wider cheekbones, concave incisors,
  • width between eyes greatest
  • Black (everyone of African and West Indian
    decent)
  • more prominent ridges, wider nasal opening
  • White (Caucasian and Hispanic decent)
  • narrow everything

9
  • Determination of Age from Bones
  • Ages 0-5 teeth are best forensic odontology
  • Ages 6-25 epiphyseal fusion fusion of bone
    ends to bone shaft
  • epiphyseal fusion varies with sex and is
    typically complete by age 25
  • Ages 25-40 very hard, can use pubic symphysis
  • Ages 40 periodontal disease, arthritis,
    breakdown of pelvis, occupational stress, unique
    clues

10
Determination of Age from Bones
Occupational stress wears bones at joints
Surgeries or healed wounds aid in identification
11
Determination of Stature from Bones Long bone
length (femur, tibia, humerus) is proportional to
height There are tables that forensic
anthropologists use. For example Femur length
Predicted Height 41 cm 167 cm (56) 50
cm 186 cm (61) Males (1.88 x femur length
in inches) 32.01 Females (1.945 x femur length
in inches) 28.70
12
  • Dating Human Skeletal Remains
  • Under the right conditions, bodies can be reduced
    to a skeleton in as little as three weeks
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Immunology tests can indicate if body is a few
    months old or less
  • Blood pigments last less than 10 years
  • Identification of amino acids possible if less
    than 100 yrs old (fluorescence)
  • Percentage of nitrogen in bones (new is about
    4.5) bones lose about 0.006 a year
  • Carbon dating for bones centuries old

13
Facial Reconstruction
1. Obtain skull
  • Determine demographic information
  • (female, Caucasian, early 40s)
  • Note unique features
  • (had lost all back teeth on upper and lower
    jaw)
  • Anything known about this individual?
  • (came to U.S. by boat in 1710 from Europe, died
    and buried in NY around 1733)

14
Facial Reconstruction
  • Add tissue depth markers
  • Based on largely on sex and race

3. Begin to add common fat deposits and
underlying muscles
15
Facial Reconstruction
4. Add muscle to average depth for race
5. Add skin, nose, ears
6. Add features related to age and race
(wrinkles, eye and hair color)
16
Facial Reconstruction
7. Add clothing etc appropriate for the time
period, religious affiliations, etc
17
Facial Reconstruction
18
Age Progression
Age progression drawing using parents and
siblings as a guide. It had been 15 years since
the abduction so the subject was aged to 18 years
of age.
19
Age Progression
Age progression drawing using parents and
siblings as a guide. It had been 15 years since
the abduction so the subject was aged to 18 years
of age.
Drawing led to tips and identification of the
victim
20
Age Progression
Age progression drawing using parents and
siblings as a guide. It had been 15 years since
the abduction so the subject was aged to 18 years
of age.
Drawing led to tips and identification of the
victim
21
Forensic Odontology
  • identification of bite marks on victims
  • comparison of bite marks with teeth of a suspect
  • identification of unknown bodies through dental
    records
  • age estimations of skeletal remains
  • victim identification through DNA analysis

22
Normal Adult Human Teeth
23
Forensic Odontology Bite Marks Physical
Characteristics
  • distance from cuspid to cuspid
  • tooth alignment
  • teeth width, thickness, spacing
  • missing teeth
  • wear patterns including chips and grinding
  • dental history including fillings, crowns, etc.

24
Forensic Odontology Age Determination
  • Neonatal Line allows forensic odontologists to
    determine if a child was alive at birth
  • Ratio of L-aspartic acid to D-aspartic acid (/-
    1.5 years)
  • (L-aspartic acid ? D-aspartic acid with time)
  • Gustafsons Method six signs of wear including
    dentin density and transparency (/- 4 years)
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