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Thomas Jefferson


Thomas Jefferson The Country s Greatest President 11. Jefferson s 2nd Term Jefferson deals with the impressment issue by asking for an embargo, or block of trade ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson
  • The Countrys Greatest President

1. Background and Education
  • Father Peter Jefferson
  • Like most sons of land owners, he studied land
  • Graduated from William and Mary University in
    Williamsburg, VA
  • Tall, red-headed, quiet

2. Political Beliefs
  • The government which governs least, governs best
  • Strongly favored States Rights as opposed to a
    strong national government
  • Believed in a strict construction, or strict
    interpretation, of the U.S.Constitution
  • Wanted to end all taxes of any kind paid by U.S.

3. Accomplishments Prior to becoming President
  • Wrote the first draft of the Declaration of
  • Wrote the Statute of Virginia for Religious
  • Created the University of Virginia
  • Served as an ambassador to Europe from the United

4. The Election of 1800
  • Democratic-Republican Candidates
  • Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr

4. The Election of 1800
  • Federalist Candidates
  • John Adams and Charles C. Pinckney

4. The Election of 1800
  • Adams would have won re-election, perhaps easily,
    had Alexander Hamilton not split the Federalist

4. The Election of 1800
  • Instead, the Democratic-Republicans won the
  • Both winning candidates, Jefferson and Burr,
    received 73 electoral votes
  • Election was settled the House of Representatives
    after 35 votes
  • Hamilton swings the election to Jefferson and
    angers Burr

4. The Election of 1800
  • The messed up election pointed out the need for a
    Constitutional amendment regarding the
    Presidential election process.
  • The 12th Amendment modified the Constitution so
    that the President and the Vice-President are
    elected using separate ballots.

4. The Election of 1800
  • John Adams, the 1st President to live in
    Washington, D.C., leaves before Jeffersons
  • Jeffersons Inauguration takes place on March 4,
    1801 in Washington, D.C.the 1st done there
  • The unfinished White House and Capitol were just
    about the only buildings in town

4. The Election of 1800
  • Federalists fear what Jefferson will saywill he
    start a new revolution?
  • Jefferson, surprisingly, calls for unityhe
    states We are all Republicans, we are all
  • Jefferson DOES NOT propose to change or destroy
    the structure of the federal government.

5. Accomplishments made during early part of
Jeffersons 1st term
  • Appointed Albert Gallatin as Secretary of the
  • Cut military spending
  • Reduced the army from 4000 to 2500 men
  • Reduced the navy from 25 to 7 ships
  • Reduced national debt from 83 million to 45
  • Cut ALL internal taxes

5. Accomplishments made during early part of
Jeffersons 1st term
  • Only source of government income tariffs and
    sales of Western land
  • Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire

6. Issues with the Courts
  • Marbury vs. Madison Does William Marbury, one
    of John Adams last minute midnight judges,
    receive his commission to be judge or not?
  • Jefferson had James Madison refuse to give the
    commission to Marbury
  • Issue went before the Supreme Court
  • Ruling became a precedentan example for future
    court cases

6. Issues with the Courts
  • With Marbury vs. Madison, the Supreme Court
    established the concept of Judicial Review of
  • Judicial Review means that the Court may decide
    if a law is constitutional or not.
  • If a law is judged to be unconstitutional, or
    goes against the U.S. Constitution, then the law
    ceases to be a law.

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • By 1800, the western boundary of the U.S. was the
  • The Louisiana Territory, that is all lands west
    of the Mississippi River which drained into the
    river, was originally controlled by France.
  • As part of losing the French-Indian War, France
    ceded, or gave, the Louisiana Territory to Spain

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • The Louisiana Territory continued to be
    controlled by Spain until 1800.
  • A war fought in Europe between Spain and France
    ended with a victory for Napoleon and the French.
  • Secretly, the Louisiana Territory was transferred
    from Spain to France as a result of that European

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson learned that Louisiana Territory was
    now controlled by France
  • French ownership of the Louisiana Territory posed
    several problems for the U.S.mainly the French
    were popular with the Indians and the French
    presence blocked any sort of westward movement by
    U.S. citizens into the Louisiana Territory

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • The other major problem involved the city of New
    Orleans. New Orleans controlled all river trade.
    River trade came from not only the Louisiana
    Territory, but also from the United States. If
    France decided to close the city of New Orleans
    to U.S. trade, then the U.S. would suffer great
    economic hardship.

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson realized the problems involved with
    France owning the Louisiana Territory.
  • Jefferson sends Robert Livingston and James
    Monroe to buy New Orleans and West Florida for 2
    million from France.
  • Livingston and Monroe may spend UP to 10 million.

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • Despite being more money and more land than
    expected, both Livingston and Monroe quickly
    agree to the deal.
  • The deal poses a personal problem for
    Jeffersonis this small government? Still,
    Jefferson agrees to the deal.
  • Congress debates the issuelots of money
    involvedstill, they agree to it.

7. The Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon experiences slave rebellion trouble in
    the French colony of Saint Domingue located in
    the Caribbean.
  • Napoleon also needs money for another war with
    Great Britain. He decides to sell ALL of the
    Louisiana Territory. His price 15 million.

7. The Louisiana Purchase
8. Lewis and Clark
  • For a variety of reasons, Jefferson decides to
    send a military expedition to explore the
    Louisiana Territory.
  • Jeffersons personal secretary, Captain
    Meriwether Lewis, is placed in charge of the
    expedition. The men on this expediton are called
    the Corps of Discovery.
  • Lewis was to explore the territory, map it, find
    a water route to the Pacific, make friends with
    the Native Americans, and drive out all French
    and/or British traders if possible.

Meriwether Lewis
8. Lewis and Clark
  • Lewis selects Lt. William Clark as a
    co-commander. The army refuses to recognize
    co-commanders so Clark remains a lieutenant.
  • The men of the Corps of Discovery are told that
    Clark is a Captain and a co-commander of the
  • Lewis and Clark, along with the other members of
    the Corps of Discovery, depart St. Louis on May
    14, 1804 and travels upriver.
  • They stop for the winter of 1805 in the Mandan
    villages and create Fort Mandan.

William Clark
8. Lewis and Clark
  • At Fort Mandan, Lewis and Clark hire the French
    trader Toussaint Charbonneau as an interpreter
    and guide. The true prize was Charbonneaus 2nd
    wife, Sacagawea and Sacagaweas newborn infant
  • Charbonneau proves useless. Sacagawea, while not
    a guide, does prove helpful no war party would
    travel with a woman and young child. Sacagaweas
    presence eases tensions between Corps of
    Discovery and the Indians.

8. Lewis and Clark
  • The Corps of Discovery reach the Pacific Ocean on
    November 7, 1805. Clark writes Ocean in view!
    O! The joy!
  • The first American vote involving an
    African-American (York), a female (Sacagawea),
    and men of several different nationalities takes
    place to decide where to stay for the winter.
  • The Corps of Discovery create Fort Clatsop and
    spend the 1806 winter on the Pacific coast. They
    experience problems with the natives.

8. Lewis and Clark
  • The journey becomes a race down the Missouri
    River. Lewis and Clark arrive in St. Louis on
    September 23, 1806.
  • They traveled almost 8,000 miles along the
    journey. They mapped the entire distance using
    line of sight approximations. They were off by
    only 4 miles.

9. Zebulon Pike
  • Zebulon Pike also explores the western territory.
  • Pike reaches the Colorado area and finds the
    mountain which now bears his name Pikes Peak.
  • Pike then moves south into the Spanish
    territories which eventually become Texas and

10. Jeffersons Reelection
  • By 1804, Jefferson was unquestioned success as a
    President. He was easily reelected.
  • Burr decided to run for governor of New York.
    Hamilton criticized Burr Burr challenged
    Hamilton to a duel Burr shoots and kills
    Hamilton. Burrs term as Vice President was not
    quite over at the time of the duel.

11. Jeffersons 2nd Term
  • Pirates from the Barbary Coast States in the
    Mediterranean Sea demand tribute from U.S. trade
  • Jefferson refuses to pay the tribute
  • The Barbary pirates from Tripoli declare war on
    the U.S.
  • Jefferson does not want to fight instead, he
    orders a blockade of the port of Tripoli.

11. Jeffersons 2nd Term
  • The blockade eventually works. The U.S. forces
    the pirates to sign a peace treaty which ends all
    tribute payments.
  • The military action is popular in the U.S., but
    shows the need for a U.S. navy.
  • Jefferson puts aside his own personal problems
    with the government paying for a navy, and the
    country develops a stronger defense.

11. Jeffersons 2nd Term
  • Great Britain continues its policy of
  • Impressment is when the British kidnap U.S.
    sailors and force them to work as British
  • The impressment issue becomes a big deal with the
    Chesapeake-Leopard Affair in June 1807.

11. Jeffersons 2nd Term
  • Jefferson deals with the impressment issue by
    asking for an embargo, or block of trade, against
    both Great Britain and France.
  • Congress passes the Embargo Act of 1807. The
    main victim of the law was neither Great Britain
    nor Franceit was the U.S. merchants who could no
    longer trade with either country.

11. Jeffersons 2nd Term
  • The Embargo Act proves EXTREMELY unpopular and
    Jeffersons popularity suffers as a result.
  • Eventually, Congress repealed the Embargo Act and
    replaced it with the Non-Intercourse Act.
  • The Non-Intercourse Act was no more successful
    than the Embargo Act. American merchants and
    shipowners suffered greatly.
  • Jefferson leaves office with a loss of respect.

12. Jefferson after the Presidency
  • James Madison, the author of the Constitution, a
    Democratic-Republican, and Jeffersons
    hand-picked successor becomes the next President.
  • Madison leads the country during the War of 1812.

12. Jefferson after the Presidency
  • Jefferson renews his friendship with his
    long-term friend and political rival, John Adams.
  • Jefferson and Adams exchange tons of letters with
    each other.
  • Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die on the
    same day July 4, 1826. It was the 50th
    anniversary of the Declaration of Independence
    which both men help write.