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Psychology of Learning EXP4404

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Psychology of Learning EXP4404 Chapter 5: Reinforcement Dr. Steve * Do class exercise Frohm vs. Skinner - Skinner tells the story with obvious relish and enjoyment ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology of Learning EXP4404


1
Psychology of Learning EXP4404
  • Chapter 5 Reinforcement
  • Dr. Steve

2
Topics Covered
  • Law of Effect
  • Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
  • Reinforcement
  • Escape-Avoidance Learning
  • Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
  • Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers
  • Shaping Chaining
  • Variables Affecting Reinforcement
  • Neuromechanics of Reinforcement
  • Extinction
  • Theories of Reinforcement

3
Law of Effect
  • E. L. Thorndike
  • Puzzle Box for studying animal intelligence
  • Trial and Error Learning
  • Law of Effect
  • www.youtube.com/watch?vBDujDOLre-8

4
Operant Learning
  • Operant (Instrumental) Conditioning
  • B. F. Skinners Operant Chamber

5
Operant Learning
  • Reinforcement
  • Reinforcer
  • Positive Reinforcer
  • Negative Reinforcer

6
Operant Learning
  • Escape-Avoidance Learning

7
Operant Learning
  • Learned Helplessness

8
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
  • Operant
  • Classical

9
Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcers
  • Primary Reinforcers
  • Secondary Reinforcers

10
Secondary Reinforcers
  • Clicker Training

11
Operant Learning
  • Shaping

Bird shaping video
12
Operant Learning
  • Chaining
  • Forward chaining
  • Backward chaining

Funny example of Chaining Behavior
13
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
  • Contingency
  • Contiguity

14
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
  • Reinforcer Characteristics
  • Crespi Effect (aka, Contrast Effect)
  • Negative Effect
  • Positive Effect

15
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
  • Token Economies

16
Variables Affecting Reinforcement
  • Task Characteristics
  • Motivating Operation
  • Competing Reinforcers

17
Operant Learning
  • Reward Pathway

18
Operant Learning
  • Latent Learning

19
Extinction
  • Extinction
  • Effects of extinction include
  • Extinction burst

20
Extinction
  • Effects of extinction include (contd)
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • Resurgence
  • Behavior is Extinguished

21
Theories of Reinforcement
  • Hulls Drive-Reduction Theory
  • P(R) (D x H x K x V) I
  • P(R) probability of response
  • D Drive or length of deprivation
  • H Habit or how often response has been
    reinforced
  • K Incentive (pull factor) quantity or quality
    of goal
  • V Stimulus intensity (push factor) greater
    better
  • I Inhibition- reduces probability of response
    (fatigue)
  • Forgetting may be function of reduction in D,
    K, or V (note H cannot decrease) or increase in I

22
Theories of Reinforcement
  • Premack Principle aka Relative Value Theory

23
Theories of Reinforcement
  • Response Deprivation Theory aka Equilibrium
    Theory

24
Theories of Reinforcement
  • Theories of Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance)
  • Mowrers Two-Process Theory

25
Theories of Reinforcement
  • Theories of Negative Reinforcement (Avoidance)
  • One-Process Theory
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