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Chapter Twelve

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Chapter Twelve Same-Gender Orientation and Behavior – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Twelve


1
Chapter Twelve
  • Same-Gender Orientation and Behavior

2
Understanding Same-GenderSexual Orientation
  • Kinsey originally conceptualized homosexual and
    heterosexual as a bipolar dimension or continuum
  • Concepts of sexual orientation and identity are
    evolving in ways that our concepts of masculinity
    and femininity evolved over the past few decades
    - no longer a bipolar description
  • The incidence of same-gender orientation is
    controversial because people may identify as
    non-heterosexual even though their behaviors do
    not seem consistent with the labels

3
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4
Same-Gender Orientation
Culture
  • Desire
  • Behavior
  • Self-Identification

Religion
Homophobia and Biphobia
Biology or Environment?
5
Conceptualizing Same-Gender Sexual Orientation
  • Psychodynamic Model
  • Same-gender orientation as a neurosis
  • Normal Variant Model
  • Natural, less prevalent, form of sexual
    expression
  • Early studies indicated most gay males and
    lesbians were well-adjusted - led to repeal of
    many laws
  • Biological Determinants Model
  • Hormonal and genetic influences, brain
    differences
  • Multifactorial Model
  • Biopsychosocial perspective

6
The Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith Study on
Sexual Orientation
  • Sexual orientation appears to be largely
    determined by adolescence, regardless of sexual
    activity
  • Same-gender attractions typically experienced
    about 3 years prior to same-gender sexual
    behaviors
  • Lesbians and gay men have history of heterosexual
    experiences in childhood and adolescence
  • Parental identification plays no significant role
  • No support that a particular mothering style
    produces children of a same-gender orientation

7
Forming an Identity as a Gay Male, Lesbian, or
Bisexual
  • Gay males tend to enter the identity process
    earlier
  • Lesbians more likely to realize identity after an
    intense same-gender relationship
  • Less is known about bisexual identity
  • Identity Formation
  • Identity confusion
  • Identity comparison
  • Identity tolerance
  • Identity acceptance
  • Identity pride
  • Identity synthesis

8
Sexual Orientation and Society
  • Gay and Lesbian Culture
  • Found more often in cities, where well-developed
    same-gender communities permit support and
    networking
  • HIV/AIDS and the Gay Community
  • HIV spread quickly through gay male population,
    increasing homophobia and biphobia
  • Loss of friends and partners had significant
    impact
  • Sexual Orientation and the Military
  • Continued judgment of same-gender as inconsistent
    with military service - Dont ask, Dont tell

9
Gay and Lesbian Partnerships
  • Many bisexuals, gays, and lesbians marry
    heterosexual partners and raise families
  • Gays and lesbians have fought for the right to
    have legalized partnerships
  • Some churches support marriages
  • Children raised by gay or lesbian parents do not
    seem to differ much, nor are they more likely to
    develop same-gender orientation
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