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Secondary School Bullying:

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Title: High School Bullying Author: Jo-Anne Colwell Last modified by: Noel Marceau Created Date: 11/19/2005 2:58:33 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Secondary School Bullying:


1
Secondary School Bullying
  • Psychodrama empowering bystanders to decrease
    bullying.

Supervisors Dr. Paul OHalloran Dr. Kathleen
Gregory La Trobe University
2
Defining bullying
  • Early definitions conceptualized bullying as
  • a subset of aggressive behaviours that
    intentionally caused harm to the recipient
  • the desire to hurt or put someone under pressure
    (Boultan Underwod, 1992)
  • Repeated oppression, physical or psychological,
    of a less powerful person by a more powerful
    person or group
  • A systematic abuse of power (Smith Sharp, 1994)

3
International Intervention Programs
  • The First Bergen Project Against Bullying 1991
    was a comprehensive school program that became
    the blue print for most intervention programs.
  • Provided training for teachers, parents and
    pupils.
  • Directed at reducing forms of indirect and direct
    bullying
  • 50 reduction in self-reported bullying
  • (Olweus, 1991)

4
  • The Flanders Study, Belgium, was interested in
    whether sustained support to schools would help
    reduce bullying rates.
  • Directive intervention
  • Clear rules established
  • No significant changes found in secondary schools
  • Small changes in role of bystander in primary
    school
  • (Stevens et al., 2000)

5
  • The Sheffield Study, England proposed that
    effectiveness increased when the whole school
    community was involved.
  • Clear guidelines on how to deal with bullying
    were established
  • 17 increase in students who had not been bullied
  • 14 decrease in frequency of those being bullied
    (Smith et al., 1999)

6
Prevalence Rates
  • Usually large scale studies involving a
    combination of primary and secondary schools
  • Ranges from 11.3 in Finland (Kumpulainen et al.,
    1998) to 49.8 in Ireland (OMoore kirkham,
    2001)
  • In secondary schools bullying incidents ranges
    from
  • - 4.2 in British schools (Salmon, James
    Smith, 1999)
  • - 10 in American schools (Nansel et al., 2001)
  • Australian Schools approximately 10 of students
    from Years 4-9 report being bullied most days
    with 25 of students reporting being bullied
    every few weeks or more. (Cross et al., 2009).
  • New Zealand Schools 6 of student report being
    bullied weekly or more often, 5 of students
    report bullying other students at least weekly
    (Denny et al.,2014)

7
Australian Definitions of Bullying
  • Intentional harm that is repeated over time, and
    where there is an imbalance of power between the
    bully and victim (Rigby Smith, 2011)
  • For the purpose of my study bullying will be
    defined as
  • Bullying is when a person is ignored, left out
    on purpose, or not allowed to join in hit kicked
    or pushed around has lies or nasty stories told
    about them to make other kids not like them is
    made afraid of getting hurt and/or made fun of
    and teased in a mean and hurtful way. (D.Cross,
    et al 2011)

8
Australian Intervention Programs
  • Although most schools are involved in programs
    addressing the issue of bullying there are
    limited numbers of empirically evaluated
    programs.
  • The Friendly Schools Project for primary school
    children using a whole school approach (Cross, et
    al., 2011)
  • The Beyond Bullying Secondary Program An
    innovative program empowering teachers to
    counteract bullying in schools ( Parada, R. H.
    Craven, R. G., 2008)
  • A New South Wales Study involving a single
    secondary school (Peterson Rigby, 1999)

9
Impact of Bullying
  • There are a range of psychological and physical
    symptoms associated with bullying
  • Both bully and victim are at greater risk of
    developing severe adjustment problems that may
    persist into adulthood.

10
Impact of Bully-Victim Role
  • Adolescents in the role of bully-victim are the
    most severely rejected by their peers, and
    display serious adjustment problems with more
  • - externalizing behaviors
  • - internalizing behaviors
  • - psychosomatic behaviors
  • than either those in the role of bully or victim.
  • (Kumpulinen et al., 1998)

11
Impact of Bully Role
  • Adolescents that bully tend to have a range of
    externalizing problems
  • e.g., alcohol and cigarette abuse, vandalism
    and stealing
  • Bullies are more likely to have attention deficit
    disorder and suffer depression into adulthood
    (Kumpulinen et al., 1998, Riittakerttu et al.,
    1999)

12
Impact of the Victim Role
  • Victims of bullying are more likely to be unhappy
    and absent from school than non-victims.
  • Suffer from low self-esteem, insecurity,
    depression, suicidal ideation.
  • Suffer from a range of psychosomatic symptoms
    including sleep difficulties, bed wetting,
    headaches and stomach aches.
  • ( Forero et al., 1999 Kumpulinen et al., 1998)

13
Cyberbullying
  • Cyberbullying or bullying using the Internet or
    mobile is a form of bullying that includes both
    direct and indirect aggressive components. (
    Dooley, Pyzalski Cross, 2009)
  • Cyberbullying victimisation is significantly
    related to school problems, shoplifting, carrying
    a weapon and running away from home. (Hinduja
    Patchin, 2007, 2008)
  • Australian study including 7,200 secondary
    students found 7 were cyberbullied frequently,
    4 cyberbullied others frequently and 2 reported
    frequent cybervictimisation perpetration. (Cross
    et al., 2009)
  • Cybervictimisation more prevalent for females and
    cyberperpetration more prevalent for males (Cross
    et al., 2009)

14
Current Interventions
  • Have limited success
  • CBT doesnt necessary suit all students
  • Whole school approach varying degrees of success
  • Different approaches required
  • Psychodrama is able to work more directly with
    different roles involved in bullying

15
Peer Roles
  • Bullying frequently occurs in front of peers and
    often develops into a group process.
  • Peers are present 88 of the time
  • Intervening occurs only 19 of the time
  • (Hawkins, Pepler Craig, 2001)
  • Six distinct participant roles have been
    identified the bully, victim, assistant,
    reinforcer, defender and outsider. (Salmivalli,
    1996)
  • Bystander roles are now recognized as key roles
    for changing bullying behaviour (Salmivalli,1996)

16
Psychodrama
  • Psychodrama is a group action method that was
    developed by Jacob Moreno in early 1900s.
  • Embedded in this therapeutic technique is the
    concept of role development.
  • Roles develop at different stages in a persons
    life in response to situations, environment and
    people that surround them.

17
Sociodrama
  • Is a variation of psychodrama that deals with the
    collective roles
  • A group member is chosen to represent a
    collective role, e.g., the role of the bully
  • The scene is structured and enacted
  • The drama can be frozen and roles can be
    examined. All group members can experience all
    roles involved.

18
Psychodrama and Adolescents
  • Psychodrama has successfully been used with
    adolescents in various setting
  • - group settings working with depression,
    anxiety, trauma (Cossa, 2006)
  • - individually dealing with a range of
    problems (Colwell, 2004)
  • - in school settings dealing with bullying
    (Browne, 1999 McKimmie, 1999)

19
Research Proposal
  • Victorian high schools are currently struggling
    with the issue of bullying
  • Bullying is often a group process
  • Psychodrama is often a group process
  • Psychodrama allows the development of new
    perspectives, insights and new roles
  • Psychodrama may be an effective intervention with
    bullying?

20
Proposed Intervention
  • Initially a pilot project with a group of Year 7
    students followed by a program run across an
    entire year level
  • A series of 4 sessions targeting bystander
    behavior
  • Data collected pre and post intervention, with
    the possibility of a focus group

21
Program Sessions
  • Session One
  • Introduction to roles
  • Spectrogram
  • 5 things you know about bullying
  • Video
  • Discussion with focus on bystander
  • Session Two
  • The value of the bystander
  • Discussion re bully/victim focus
  • Video with new focus
  • Bystander pitfalls
  • Role play around school yard bullying
  • Cyberbully role play

22
  • Session Three
  • Activating the bystander
  • Concretize internal conflict
  • Cyberbullying what makes a difference?
  • how are bystander roles played out?
  • Consequences?
  • Session Four
  • Consolidation of learning
  • Revisit bystander roles
  • Ethical Protector, values and beliefs associated
    with role
  • Development of catch phrase
  • Postcard to self

23
Proposed Research Questions
  • Is psychodrama a useful intervention for reducing
    bullying in a Victorian secondary school?
  • Is psychodrama an effective intervention for
    reducing rates of cyberbullying in Year 7
    students?
  • Does the intervention have an effect on student
    self-efficacy?
  • Does the intervention have an effect on student
    mental health?
  • Does the intervention have an effect on bystander
    behavior?

24
Outcome Measures
  • Not finalised as yet
  • Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire
    (BPBQ). 50 items focused on participant roles
    (Demaray, etal., 2014)
  • Short version, 14 items, of DASS-21 focused on
    depression and anxiety (Szabo, 2010)
  • Cyberbullying measure
  • Self- efficacy measure
  • Searching for a suitable psychodrama measure

25
Items from the BPBQ
  • Bully
  • I have tried to make people dislike another
    student
  • I have said bad things about another student
  • I have thrown things at another student
  • I have stolen from another student
  • Assistant
  • I have made fun of someone when they were pushed,
    punched or slapped
  • When someone else tripped another student on
    purpose, I laughed
  • When someone else was verbally threatening
    another student, I joined in
  • When someone else threw something at another
    student I joined in (Demaray, etal., 201415)

26
  • Victim
  • I have been made fun of
  • I have been ignored
  • I have been pushed or shoved
  • I have been threatened by others
  • Defender
  • I helped someone who was purposely tripped
  • I defended someone who had things purposely taken
    from them
  • I defended someone who was being pushed, punched,
    or slapped
  • I tried to become friends with someone after they
    were picked on Outsider
  • I pretended not to notice when someone else
    tripped another student on purpose
  • I ignored it when someone threw something at
    another student
  • I pretended not to notice when someone was
    destroying another students property
  • I pretended not to notice when things were taken
    or stolen from another student (Demaray, etal.,
    201416)

27
DASS-21 Questions
  • Depression
  • I felt I wasnt worth much as a person
  • I felt that life was meaningless
  • I felt that there was nothing to look forward to
  • I was unable to become enthusiastic about
    anything
  • I felt down hearted and blue
  • Anxiety
  • I felt close to panic
  • I felt scared without any god reason
  • I experienced trembling in (e.g., in the hands)
  • I felt like I was going to panic and make a fool
    of myself (Szabo, 20105)

28
Perceived Challenges
  • Use of appropriate measures
  • Ensuring measures arent lengthy
  • Focus groups
  • Embedding intervention within school curriculum
  • Recruitment of numbers
  • Restructuring of groups

29
References
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    psychology, 62, 73-87.
  • Browne, R. (1999). A systems approach to
    Bullying Australian and New Zealand Psychodrama
    Journal, 8, 27-37
  • Colwell, J. (2004) The flowering of a rose.
    Australian and New Zealand Psychodrama Journal,
    13, 5-11.
  • Cossa, M. (2006). Rebels with a cause working
    with adolescents using action techniques.
    London Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
  • Cross, D., Hall, M., Hamilton, G., Pintabona, Y.
    Erceg, E. (2004a). Australia The Friendly
    Schools project. In Smith, P.K., Pepler, D.
    Rigby, K. (Eds) Bullying in schools How
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30
  • Cross, D., Monks, H., Hall, M., Shaw, T.,
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31
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33
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34
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