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Crises of the 14th Century

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Crises of the 14th Century Moving pieces, shifting powers – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crises of the 14th Century


1
  • Crises of the 14th Century

Moving pieces, shifting powers
2
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3
Europe, early 14th century
4
Setting the Stage
  • Feudal society
  • Little Ice Age 1300-1450
  • Social and economic effects
  • Physical effects

5
Quotes on the Black Death
  • Boccacio The victims ate lunch with their
    friend and dinner with their ancestors in
    paradise
  • Samuel Pepys Realizing what a deadly disaster
    had come to them the people quickly drove the
    Italians from their city Fathers abandoned their
    sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make out
    wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left
    to care for the sickBodies were left in empty
    houses, and there was no one to give them a
    Christian burial.

6
The Bubonic Plague
  • A plague victim reveals
  • the telltale buboe (a boil)
  • On his leg. From a 14th
  • Century illumination.

7
The Black Death
  • Epidemic Disease
  • Illustration
  • From the
  • Toggenburg
  • Bible, 1411

8
The Path of the Plague
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Consequences for Population
  • Urban areas
  • Rural regions
  • monasteries
  • Overall population loss 1/3 of Europes
    population in the first wave

11
Economic Consequences
  • The great equalizer
  • Lack of sufficient law enforcement personnel
  • Promoted lawlessness
  • People tried their luck

12
Economic Consequences
  • Peasants and artisans
  • Artisan skills
  • Price drop
  • Standard of living
  • Landlords and serfs
  • Response of the oppressed poor

13
Music and Art
  • Danse Macabre the dance of death skeletons
    mingling with the living (here Hans Holbein the
    Younger)
  • Shocking juxtapositions
  • Written language almost lost
  • Coffins had pictures of corpses on the lid
  • New creativity in motives

14
The Flagellants
  • Christians - and an angry Deity.
  • Bands wandering through towns and countryside
  • Public penance. Inflicted all kinds of punishment
    upon themselves
  • Sacrifice for the sins of the world like Jesus

15
Religious Consequences
  • Church loses prestige whygt?
  • Revolt against the church
  • Severe shortage of clergy functioned as nurses
    and consequently died.
  • Pogroms The church targeted the Jews for
    persecution had killed Jesus and brought sin to
    the world

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18
A FAMILY SQUABBLE that led to a 100 year war?
Philip IV elder brother of Charles of
Valois Charles IVsister of Isabella Isabellamarr
ied to King Edward II If only males can rule
(salic law (agnatic succession), then who gets
the crown after Charles IV dies?
19
116 years, 68 years relative peace, 44 fighting
5 English monarchs, 5 French monarchs
20
. A Struggle for National Identity
  • France was NOT a united country before the war
    began.
  • The French king only controlled about half of the
    country.

21
Belligerents
  • House of Plantagenet
  • England Burgundy Aquitaine Brittany
    Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Luxembourg Holy
    Roman Empire
  • House of Valois
  • France Scotland Wales Castile Genoa Majorca Bohemi
    a Crown of Aragon

Why do you think some areas in, close to, and
around France supported England?
22
Height of English Dominance
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The French Reconquest
  • Even though in 1428 the military and political
    power seemed firmly in British hands, the French
    reversed the situation.
  • In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious Joan of
    Arc, the French king, Charles VII, was able to
    raise the English siege of Orleans.
  • This began the reconquest of the north of France.

25
Joan of Arc (1412-1432)
  • She brought inspiration and a sense of national
    identity and self-confidence.
  • With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims
    ending the disinheritance.
  • She was captured during an attack on Paris and
    fell into English hands.
  • Because of her unnatural dress and claim to
    divine guidance, she was condemned and burned as
    a heretic in 1432.
  • She instantly became a symbol of French
    resistance.

26
EFFECTS OF THE WAR
  • GROWTH OF NATIONALISM PEOPLESTARTED SEEING
    THEMSELVES AS ENGLISHMEN OR FRENCHMEN
  • THE GOVERNMENTS TOOK ADVANTAGE AND RAISED
    TAXESENCOURAGES CENTRALIZED STATESEASIER FOR
    ENGLAND THAN FRANCE
  • REPRESENTATIVE CONSENT-ENGLAND PARLIAMENT VS.
    FRANCE (MULIPLE ASSEMBLIES) (Englands nobles
    become somewhat of an exception)
  • NOBILITY INFLUENCE DECLINES

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The Great Schism, 13781417 New Criticism of the
Papacy The Great Schism The Conciliar Movement
29
Unam Sanctum
  • Boniface VIII issued a new bull Unam Sanctum
    (1302)
  • Two powers on earth temporal (earthly)
    spiritual (heavenly)
  • Spiritual Power is ALWAYS higher than temporal
  • The Pope is ALWAYS higher than kings
  • Phillip proved this was not true, by kidnapping
    the pope and applying a medieval beat down
  • Boniface VIII died less than a year later from
    the stress

30
ROME OR AVIGNON?
  • Pope Boniface VIII
  • Issued a papal bull (official statement) saying
    kings may not tax church property (1296 CE)
  • French King, Philip IV, had been taxing the
    church to pay for war with England (back to the
    war, again!) Philip ignored the papal bull
  • Papacy is pressured to move to Avignon by Phillip
    (1309-1376Babylonian Capitivity
  • 1377 Pope Gregory XI dies Urban VI or Clement
    VII?
  • A Group of 13 French Cardinals sneak away to
    select a new Pope Clement VII (Robert of Geneva
  • TA DA!! 2 Popes! Countries line up behind
    their pope
  • A great schism indeed 1378-1417

31
Pisa, 1409fed up religious leaders elect a 3rd
pope!
32
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33
Great Schism (1378 1417 CE)
  • Each pope _at_ ½ powerreligious leaders are angry
  • Conciliar Movement
  • Popes must bow to councils of clergy leaders
  • Checking the power of the Pope
  • Declining prestige of papacy and authority
  • William of Occamall governments should be
    accountable to the governed church and state
    should be separate
  • Marsiglio of Padua the church is
  • now subordinate to the state

34
Schism social protest New Heresies The Lollards
and the Hussites John Wycliffe Jan Hus-Bohemia
Frustrated Catholics come up with new
ideas Christ was meek, but the pope sits on his
throne and makes lords to kiss his feet John
Wycliffe Dangerous ideas Christ is head of the
church, not a pope Clergy should live as Christ,
in poverty Bible is final arbiter of how to live
as a Christian Christianity should be taught in
the vernacular Hus agreed with Wycliffe
congregations should receive wine
35
Council of Constance (1417 CE) Reduces 3 popes
down to one (Martin V) Hus, tricked, then burned.
36
Effects of the Great Schism
  • Spiritual
  • Popes lose power over kings excommunication not
    effective
  • Popes lose spiritual authority
  • Local clergy left without authority
  • Lords and bishops lose power
  • Temporal
  • Kings showed they had more practical power
  • Catholics grow frustrated with unclear message
  • New ideas emerge
  • Christianity moving into the hands of ordinary
    Christians

Criticism and Confusion over Church power will
lead to THE REFORMATION
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