Authors use many different methods to organize information. If you know which organizational method the author is using, you will better understand the information you read. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Authors use many different methods to organize information. If you know which organizational method the author is using, you will better understand the information you read.

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Title: Structures of Nonfiction Text Author: Debbie Last modified by: Nancy Miller Created Date: 2/7/2011 10:21:52 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Authors use many different methods to organize information. If you know which organizational method the author is using, you will better understand the information you read.


1
  • Authors use many different methods to organize
    information. If you know which organizational
    method the author is using, you will better
    understand the information you read.
  • Authors use two techniques to clearly show how
    ideas are related to one another
  • Organizational Methods (Patterns)
  • Transitions

2
Structures of Nonfiction Text
3
Cause and Effect
  • Cause and effect is the relationship between two
    things when one thing makes something else
    happen.
  • Thesis Research has shown that birth defects
    have various causes.
  • Four basic cause-effect relationships
  • single cause - single effect
  • single cause - multiple effects
  • multiple causes - single effect
  • multiple causes - multiple effects

4
Cause and Effect
  • This text structure uses the process of
    identifying potential causes of a problem or
    issue in an orderly way. It is often used to
    teach social studies and science concepts.
  • Look for signal words that show cause/effect
    relationships because, so, so that, if then,
    consequently, thus, since, for, for this reason,
    as a result of, therefore, due to, this is how,
    nevertheless, and accordingly.

5
  • Cause Effect
  • Cause Kelly eats a lot of candy
  • Effect Kelly has cavities at every check
  • Cause Joel volunteers at the homeless shelter 20
    hours a week.
  • Effect Joel received the "Volunteer of the
    Year" award!
  • Cause My family was late getting to the
    airport.
  • Effect Our seats we reassigned and we had to
    take a later flight

6
Problem and Solution
  • In this text structure, the author states a
    problem and lists one or more solutions for the
    problem.
  • Thesis Mark could not pass his exams but didnt
    know why until he spoke with some of his friends
    who had studied Maslows Theory.
  • Look for these signal words and phrases Problem
    is Dilemma is Puzzle is Solved Question answer

7
  • Example??Several students receive poor grades on
    writing assignments, not because they lack the
    ability to communicate, but because they can not
    seem to manage their time when it comes to a
    large project. They do not know where to begin,
    and therefore put things off until the last
    minute. To solve this problem, students need to
    develop a timeline for completing the project. If
    they divide the assignment into manageable
    chunks or parts and then set a schedule for
    completing each part, they will be able to finish
    the entire project before the deadline. Without
    the pressure of not knowing where to begin, the
    students will be able to focus on the assignment
    and communicate their ideas effectively.

8
Question and Answer
  • In this text structure, the author will ask a
    question, and then will offer an answer to the
    question.
  • Look for signal words similar to those of the
    problem/solution text structure.

9
Compare and Contrast
  • In this text structure, the author explains how
    two or more things are alike and/or how they are
    different
  • Thesis Gangs and fraternities share many
    characteristics, but are quite different
  • Look for these signal words
  • However, unlike, like, by contrast, yet, in
    comparison, although, whereas, similar to,
    different from

10
  • Example??Although they are sisters, Jennifer and
    Jessica are complete opposites. Jennifer enjoys
    playing sports, while Jessica would rather watch.
    Jennifer has no interest in playing a musical
    instrument, while Jessica is the first chair
    violinist. Jennifer listens to new age music,
    while Jessica prefers country. Jennifers
    favorite subject is English, and Jessicas
    favorite is math. Jennifer likes to curl up in a
    chair on a rainy day and read a good book , but
    Jessica would rather sleep all day. No one would
    ever guess that they are actually twins.

11
Description
  • This text structure is best when used to learn a
    lot of information about a topic and the author
    describes a topic by listing characteristics,
    features, examples. Sequence does not necessarily
    matter.
  • Look for these signal words
  • For example characteristics are for instance,
    specifically, in particular, in addition

12
Sequence
  • In this text structure, the author lists items or
    events in chronological or numerical order.
    Chronological order is the order in which the
    events occurred, from first to last.
  • Thesis
  • Between now and the election, the candidate will
    make a number of campaign stops throughout the
    U.S.
  • Look for these signal words
  • Next, first, last, second, another, then,
    additionally

13
  • Sequence or Chronological Order Example ??It
    seemed like an ordinary day when she got up that
    morning, but Lynda was about to embark on the
    worst day of her life. First, she fell in the
    bathtub because her mother forgot to rinse out
    the bath oil. Then she spilled orange juice on
    the outfit she had spent hours putting together
    for school pictures. When she changed, she messed
    up the French braid her mother had put in her
    hair. As she walked out the door, she dropped all
    of her school books and her math homework flew
    away. Once she made it to the car she thought
    everything would be all right. She was wrong her
    father didn't look before he backed out of the
    driveway and ran into the neighbors truck.
    Lyndas side of the car was damaged the most, and
    she ended up with a broken arm. That night, she
    cried herself to sleep.
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