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Title: Global Studies Review


1
Global Studies Review
  • 3200 B.C.-1700s

2
Beginnings of Civilization
  • Geography- study of humans and their interaction
    with the environment. Themes
  • Location (describes where something is)
  • Place (features that make site unique)
  • Regions (areas that share commons
    characteristics)
  • Movement (looks at how why people things
    move)
  • Human Environment Interaction
  • Culture- a groups knowledge, beliefs, values and
    customs
  • Cultural Diffusion-spread of ideas from one
    society to another.

3
Paleolithic Era
  • 2.5 million B.C.-8000 B.C.
  • hunting
  • gathering wild game
  • edible plants
  • living in nomadic groups
  • Old Stone Age

4
Neolithic Era
  • 8000 B.C.- 3000 B.C.
  • farming crops
  • domestication of animals
  • living in settlements and villages
  • New Stone Age
  • Rise of cities and civilizations

5
Features of a Civilization
  • Cities
  • Government
  • Writing
  • Religion
  • Public Works
  • Job Specialization
  • Art Architecture
  • Social Classes

6
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
7
Mesopotamia
8
Babylonians
9
Tigris Euphrates Riverspresent day Iraq
  • Mesopotamia
  • ancient Sumer
  • fertile crescent
  • Polytheistic
  • Ziggurats
  • Cuneiform
  • Wheel
  • Sail
  • plow
  • Babylonians
  • advanced knowledge in astronomy
  • Hanging Gardens
  • Hammurabis code (code of laws eye for an eye)

10
Nile River
11
Egyptians
12
Nile RiverPresent day Egypt
  • Polytheistic (many gods)
  • pharoah (god/king)
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Papyrus
  • Pyramids
  • Mumification (Book of the Dead)
  • Calendar (based on floods of Nile)

13
Indus and Ganges Rivers
14
Indus and Ganges Rivers
  • Indus-Pakistan
  • Ganges-India
  • Mohenjo Daro and Harappa Valley
  • grid like pattern for city
  • plumbing
  • Organized government
  • Aryans
  • created caste system
  • Based on occupation
  • beginnings of Hinduism
  • (Vedas)
  • River sacred to Hindus

15
Huang He River
16
Ancient Chinese Civilization
17
Huang He and Yangtze Rivers
  • China
  • Shang Dynasty (1766 BC-1100BC)
  • Mandate of Heaven- right to rule
  • dynastic cycle-process of rule
  • silk-bronze
  • coin money
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Zhou Dynasty (1100 BC-221BC)

18
Other Civilizations
  • Phoenicians
  • Hittites

19
Persians
20
Other Important Civilizations
  • Phoenicians (1500-300 BCE)
  • Lebanon
  • created alphabet
  • proficient sailors
  • Hittites (1750-1180BCE)
  • Asia Minor
  • extracted iron from ore-able to create stronger
    weapons.
  • Persians (550-330 BCE)
  • fertile crescent-present day Iran
  • barter economy
  • zoroastrianism (religion)
  • Hebrews
  • Israel
  • created monotheistic religion Judaism

21
Empires
  • A collection of nations or people ruled by a
    single authority usually a monarch, but other
    systems of govt too

22
Empires of CHINA
  • Qin (221 BC-206 BC)
  • Shi Huang Di
  • Legalism (harsh)
  • Great Wall
  • Han (206 BC-220AD)
  • Gao Zu began Empire
  • Confucious govt
  • Civil Service Exam
  • Filial Piety
  • Emperor Wudi
  • Growth of Trade (Silk Road)
  • Technology-Paper
  • Medicine-Anestetics
  • 3. Sui (589-618 AD)
  • Grand Canal (1,000 ft links N-S China)
  • Tang(618-907 AD)
  • age of Buddhism
  • Footbinding
  • woodblock printing
  • Gunpowder
  • Paper Money
  • Magnetic compass
  • Song (960-1279 AD)
  • Moveable type
  • Porcelain

23
Shi Huang Di
24
More Asian Empires
  • Mongols
  • Ghengis Khan(1206-1227)
  • conquered lands throughout China
  • Golden Horde (Tartars)
  • Batu (grandson) controlled most of Russia
  • Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)
  • Kublai Khan (grandson)
  • Pax Mongolia guarded trade routes (Silk Road)
  • Marco Polo
  • Korea (name from Koryo Dynasty)
  • -cultural bridge btwn. China and Japan
  • Hermit Kingdom
  • Choson Dynasty

25
India
  • Maurya Empire (320 -185 BC)
  • Chandragupta
  • United India
  • Strong government
  • Organized bureaucracy
  • Ashoka
  • Expanded empire
  • Promoted Buddhism
  • Public works (roads wells for travellers)
  • Gupta Empire (320-550 AD)
  • Chandra
  • Reunited northern India
  • Golden Age (peace, wealth, advancements)
  • Promoted Hinduism

26
Greece before Greece
  • Minoans
  • Mycenaeans
  • Crete
  • 3,000BCE-1450 BCE
  • Knossus
  • King Minos-Labyrinth
  • Snake Goddess
  • Trade
  • Linear A
  • Arthur Evans
  • 2200 BCE
  • Heinrich Schliemann
  • Linean B
  • Trojan War
  • Homer
  • Dark Ages

27
Ancient Greece (1750 B.C. -133 B.C.)
  • Mediterranean Sea
  • Archipelago
  • Main City States
  • Sparta
  • military-discipline
  • Athens
  • Democracy
  • Education
  • Intellectualism
  • Art
  • Drama
  • Philosophy (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle)

28
A not so Greek
  • Alexander the Great (359 BC- 326 BC)
  • not a real greek
  • conquered Greece, Persia, northern India,and
    Egypt
  • Accomplishments
  • Hellenistic civilization (GreekPersianEgyptianI
    ndian)
  • CULTURAL DIFFUSSION

29
Rome (509 B.C.-476 A.D.)
  • Central location helped create vast empire.
  • 756 BC Etruscans and Latiums established city of
    Rome rule by Tyrants
  • Republic 509 B.C.-31 B.C.
  • consuls,patricians,plebians controlled Roman
    affairs.
  • Twelve Tables (civil law)
  • Punic Wars-against Carthage, 3 wars, Hannibal,
    Rome won)
  • Julius Caesar
  • great general
  • Dictator
  • popular for reforms
  • killed by rivals (et tu Brute)
  • Empire 31 B.C.-476 A.D. Octavious/Augustus
  • Pax Romana (31B.C.-180A.D.)
  • Roman Peace stable govt

30
Roman Achievements
  • Architecture
  • emphasis on grandeur
  • Engineering
  • system of roads, bridges, harbors, and aqueducts.
  • Science
  • Ptolemy (earth center of universe)
  • Pliny the Elder(wrote many books on different
    topics.

31
Roman Achievements
  • Roman Law
  • Applied to all people-created stability-5 basic
    principles
  • People equal under the law
  • Accused can face accusers
  • Decisions based on fairness
  • Person is presumed innocent
  • Guilt must be clearly established

32
Fall of Rome
  • Military Causes
  • Invasions from north
  • army lacked training and discipline
  • hired mercenaries
  • Huns pushed Goths over Empires boundaries
  • Economic Causes
  • heavy taxes
  • middle class disappears
  • farmers left land-used slave labor
  • Political Causes
  • Govt too strict
  • Curruption
  • Empire divided.
  • Social Causes
  • population decline (disease and famine)
  • people became selfish and lazy

33
Byzantine Empire395-1453 CE
  • Extension of Roman Empire
  • (Greco-Roman heritage)
  • Shaped developing cultures of Russia and Eastern
    Europe.
  • Constantinople
  • capital of Eastern Empire
  • Protected by water walls
  • Major trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire)
  • Justinian and Theodora (527-565)
  • code of laws
  • Hagia Sophia
  • Tried to reunite east west failed due to plague
  • Orthodox Christianity

34
Middle East
  • Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia)
  • Cultural diffusion-gt Trade
  • Preserved ancient writings of Greeks and Romans
  • Islam
  • Abassid Empire 740s-900s)
  • Shiite muslims
  • Trade increased
  • Safavid Empire (1500-1722)
  • Persian muslims (shiite)
  • Ottoman Empire (1300s-1919)
  • Controlled former area called Byzantine/Constantin
    ople
  • Shiite vs Sunni
  • Sunni people who follow the Sunna (way of the
    prophet) caliph should be good person
  • Shiite/Shia caliphite must go to a descendent of
    Muhammad

35
Africa
  • Sahara desert-largest world barrier
  • Sahel-south of Sahara undergoing desertification
  • Savanna-grasslands-supports farming and herding
  • Animism-early religion-spirits present in natural
    objects.
  • Oral history (griots)
  • Bantu Migrations (900s BCE)
  • Migrations into South Africa

36
  • West Africa
  • Land of Gold
  • Ghana (800s-1076 CE)
  • Traded gold salt
  • Mali (1230s-1433 CE)
  • Sundiata (ruler Epic story)
  • Mansa Musa (1307)
  • Devout Muslim hajj cultural diffussion
  • Timbuktu center fro education, religion, culture
  • Ibn Battuta wrote about travels in Africa
  • Songhai (1460s)
  • Sunni Ali-great military leader
  • Askia Muhammad-Golden Age
  • East Africa
  • Influenced by Monsoons
  • Kush (Nubia)
  • Auxum (100-600 CE)
  • Ethiopia
  • Christian
  • Traded w/ coins
  • Ivory
  • Gold
  • People
  • Swahili
  • Combination of Bantu Arabic language

37
Latin American Empires
  • Maya (300-900 CE)
  • Yucatan Peninsula/Mexico
  • advancements in astronomy
  • Human Sacrifice
  • Aztec (1200-1520 CE)
  • Central Mexico
  • conquered by Spanish (Cortes)
  • Human Sacrifice
  • Incas(1438-1525 CE)
  • Andes mts./Peru
  • conquered by Spanish (Pizzaro)
  • road system terrace farming
  • All were polytheistic, highly complex,and
    well-organized

38
Empire of Japan
  • Archipelago
  • Ring of Fire
  • borrowed culture from China
  • terrace farming
  • Shintoism (religion)
  • Feudalism-land in exchange for military
  • Bushido (code of conduct for samurai)

39
Europe
  • Dark Ages (476 AD -800)
  • End of Roman Rule in western Europe
  • Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings)
  • no books
  • no learning/education
  • Preserved by monks and muslims
  • no government
  • no common language
  • no unity

40
Europe Middle Ages (800-1300)
  • 3 Cs (Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne)
  • Feudalism
  • fiefdom system of loyalties
  • Manorialism-self sufficient estate
  • Chivalry-code of conduct
  • Church-most powerful institution
  • political-economic-social organization
  • Holy Roman Empire

41
Europe Middle Ages
  • Agricultural Revolution (after 900)
  • New inventions (harness for horses,3 field
    system, moldboard plow)
  • More food more people more trade routes fairs
    towns
  • Crusades-Holy Wars (1095- 1270) resulted in
    increased
  • Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledge
  • Commercial Revolution(1500s)
  • New business practices (checks, banks)
  • Capital exchanged instead of bartering
  • end of feudalism
  • Important trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)

42
  • 1348 Bubonic Plaguetrade declined-church lost
    power-1/3 population died
  • Hundred Years War 1337-1453
  • War between France and Britain over land
  • Thirty Years War 1618-1648
  • Between German Princes and Holy Roman Empire over
    religion
  • Treaty of Westphalia brought peace

43
Europe-gt Renaissance (1300-1650)
  • Rebirth of Classics
  • Greek and Roman
  • Golden Age
  • Begins in Italy b/c of
  • Crusades
  • urban centers
  • wealthy merchants
  • humanism focus on human achievements not just
    religion
  • Art focusrealism
  • Artists
  • Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famous
  • Writers
  • Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means)
    rulers should do anything to gain and keep power.
  • Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-books
    increase, vernacular, spread of ideas.

44
Europe-gtReformation (1517)
  • Martin Luther-1517
  • 95 Theses
  • upset over selling indulgences.
  • Henry VIII (1491-1547)
  • challenged Pope over divorce issue
  • Anglican church established (1534)
  • John Calvin (1541-1564)
  • predestination-born sinners
  • Huguenots (French Calvinists)
  • John Knox-Presbytarianism in Scotland (1510-1572)
  • Counter Reformation
  • Council of Trent (end abuses in Church)1545-1663
  • Inquisition (Catholics on trial)
  • Jesuits (remember practices of Jesus)

45
Europe Exploration (1400-1700)
  • Destroyed Populations
  • Superior Technology
  • Disease
  • Slavery
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Ideas, animals, plants
  • Mercantilism
  • Powerwealth
  • Take raw materials produce sell exports
  • Encomienda System
  • plantations
  • Class system
  • Search fo SPICES
  • God-Gold-Glory
  • Advances in sailing
  • Columbus
  • Magellan
  • Da Gama
  • Conquistadores
  • Cortes (Aztecs)
  • Pizzaro (Incas)

46
Europe Absolute Monarchs(1500-1800)
  • Spain
  • Isabella and Ferdinand
  • Inquisition
  • Phillip II
  • Armada defeated by England
  • England (limited monarchy)
  • Magna Carta (1215 King John)
  • Henry VIII (split with Pope)
  • Elizabeth I
  • war w/Spain religious toleration
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • civil war/resentment
  • William and Mary
  • Glorious Revolution-English Bill of Rights 1689
    limited power
  • Austria-Hapsberg family
  • Maria Theresa (Holy Roman Empire, very powerful)
  • France (Bourbons)
  • Sun King-Louis XIV
  • Built Versailles Palace
  • Russia (Romanov)
  • Ivans-gt good and bad
  • Peter the Great
  • Westernization
  • expansion
  • Catherine the Great
  • modernization
  • expansion
  • Prussia (Hohenzollerns)
  • Frederick II (the Great)
  • military hero

47
Scientific Revolution
  • 1543
  • Europe
  • Cause
  • Exploration expansion of trade
  • Continuing study of ancient ideas
  • Geocentric (Church) vs Heliocentric (Copernicus)
  • Development of scientific method
  • Effects
  • People question Church (main authority)
  • Beginnings of modern science
  • Belief in progress power of reason
  • New view of universe

48
Important Scientific Thinkers
  • Copernicus
  • Brahe
  • Kepler
  • Galileo
  • Newton
  • Boyle
  • Bacon
  • Descartes
  • Lavoisier
  • Leeuwnhoek
  • Linnaes
  • Harvey
  • Hooke
  • Vesalius

49
Enlightenment 1600s -1700sPhilosophers used
reason to find the truth, influenced by the
Scientific Revolution, promoted want for
independence
  • People
  • Thomas Hobbes people are bad, govt order
  • John Locke natural rights
  • Montesquieu separation of powers
  • Rousseau born good, govt protection
  • Voltaire against slavery
  • Diderot Encyclopedie
  • Wollstonecraft Smith dont forget the ladies
  • Smith Laissez Faire (economy)
  • Influenced Revolution around the world

50
Revolution
  • The overthrow or replacement of a government or
    political system.

51
American Revolution
  • 1776-1783
  • Where North America (13 colonies)
  • Cause
  • British Colony
  • Mercantilism
  • No taxation w/out representation
  • Influenced by Enlightenment (Locke Montesquieu)
  • Effects
  • United States of America

52
French Revolution Napoleon
  • 1789-1815
  • France
  • Cause
  • 3 Estates (3rdhigh taxes few rights)
  • Influenced by Enlightenment American Revolution
  • 1789 3rd estate declares itself National
    Assembly Bastille stormed, Declaration of Rights
    of Man, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
  • Effects
  • Reign of Terror-Robespierre-guillotine
  • Napoleon (1804-1814) many changes, expensive,
    disaster in Russia (weather)
  • Congress of Vienna-restore balance of power

53
Latin American Independence
  • 1791-1835
  • Central South America
  • Cause
  • Nationalism-influenced by American and French
    Revolution.
  • Effects
  • LOuverture (Haiti)
  • Bolivar (Liberator of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru,
    Bolivia)
  • San Martin (Argentina)
  • Hidalgo Morelos OHiggins (Mexico)
  • Lack of unityAndes Mts Amazon rain forest
  • Economic instability Reliance on single crop
    economy

54
Industrial Revolution
  • 1750-1850
  • Where
  • Britain-natural resources, harbor, navy, economic
    political stability
  • Cause
  • Agricultural Rev-new inventions ?food?People
  • New Inventionssteam power, cottage-factories,
    mass production
  • Urbanization
  • Effects
  • Poor Working conditions-hours, pay, dangerous,
    child labor
  • Middle Class
  • Unions
  • People Ideas Adam Smith (Laissez Faire),
    Charles Darwin (evolution, natural selection),
    Utopia (perfect society), Karl Marx (Communist
    Manifesto, workers unite and share
    equally-classless society)

55
Russian Revolution (1917)
  • Cause cruel czars, losses in war, poverty
  • 1905 (Bloody Sunday-marchers killed)
  • March 1917 czar Nicholas abdicates
  • Bolsheviks (Communists/Reds) take
    over-peace,land bread.
  • Lenin leads until 1924-USSR-NEP
  • Stalin-totalitarian rule-Russification, 5 year
    plans, collective farms, secret police, forced
    famine, Great Purge, forced exiles, murders,
    millions killed died 1953

56
Chinese Revolution
  • 1930s-1940s
  • Cause Nationalists (Guomindang w/leader Jiang
    Jeishi) vs. Communists (Mao Zedong)
  • 1949 Communists were victorious
  • Mao Zedong
  • Great Leap Forward
  • Cultural Revolution Little Red Book

57
Imperialism domination by one country of the
political, economic or cultural life of another
region /country
  • 1800-1914
  • Cause
  • resources, land labor
  • Effects
  • Africa
  • lack of unity-not free until 1960s-boundary wars.
  • Americas
  • Lead to USA policing region
  • India
  • Sepoy Rebellion-rid foreigners-lost
  • China
  • Opium Wars-British won, Boxer Rebellion -rid
    foreigners-lost
  • Japan
  • Meiji Restoration-modernize
  • Impact
  • cultural diffusion
  • nationalism (1)
  • destruction of traditional societies
  • improved standards of living

58
Nationalism pride in ones country, want of self
determination
  • Germany 1871 Otto Von Bismarck
  • Italy 1871 Guiseppe Garibaldi, Guiseppe Mazzini
  • Austria 1869 Dual Monarchy becomes
    Austria-Hungary
  • Turkey 1917 Kemal Ataturk
  • Israel 1949 Balfour Declaration, Zionism
  • India1948 Mohandas Gandhi
  • Africa 1910-1079 Jomo Kenyatta, Nelson Mandela
  • Iran 1925 Reza Khan

59
World War I (1914-1918)
  • Cause Imperialism, nationalism, militarism,
    assassination (Ferdinand) Balkan Powder Keg,
    alliances
  • Central PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary,
    Ottomans) vs. Allied Powers (Britain, France,
    Russia, USA, Italy)
  • Impact several fronts, trenches, deadlier
    weapons-Great war
  • Effects Treaty of Versailles (unfair to Germany)
    League of Nations formed

60
World War II (1939-1945)
  • Cause Germany Italy aggressive
  • Impact appeasement (give in), Germany invades
    Poland (starts war).
  • Allies (B,F, USSR, US) vs Axis (G, I, J)
  • Holocaust- genocide
  • Pearl Harbor involves US
  • V-E Day May 1945
  • Japan surrenders August 1945 after 2 A bombs
    dropped
  • Effects Nuremberg Trials, Japan loses military,
    Germany split, United Nations formed

61
Cold War (1946-1990)
  • USA vs USSR-hostilities-Democracy vs Communism
  • Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan-prevent communism,
    strengthen democracycapitalism
  • NATO vs Warsaw Pactmilitary alliances
  • Arms Race Space Race
  • Korean War (nc) (sd)-gtno change
  • Vietnam War (nc) (sd) Southcomm.
  • Cuba-Castro-missile crisis 1962-embargo on Cuba
    w/US
  • End détente (ease)
  • Reagan for U.S.A.
  • Gorbachev (glasnost, perestroika), nationalism,
    fall of USSR
  • Yeltsin new president of Russia

62
Around the World
  • Poland
  • -solidarity (union) Lech Walesa-No Communism
  • Germany
  • Fall of Berlin Wall
  • Ethnic/religious tensions
  • Bosnia
  • Ireland (Catholic vs Protestant)
  • Pakistan (Muslims) vs. India (Hindus)
  • Israel (Jews vs Palestinian Muslims)
  • Africa
  • Apartheid (South Africa)
  • Somalia
  • Rwanda (Hutus vs Tutsis)
  • Darfur (Omar al-Bashir)
  • Nuclear Warfare (North Korea, India, Pakistan)
  • Overpopulation (India, China-1 child policy)

63
  • Urbanization
  • Pollution (acid rain, deforestation, depletion of
    ozone, desertification, global warming,
    endangered species)
  • Green Revolution
  • fertilizers, farming techniques increase food.
  • Computer Revolution (new technology)
  • Satellite Technology (Space)
  • Medical Advances-genetics, cloning, stem cells,
    vaccines
  • Organizations OPEC, OAS (Latin America), OAU
    (Africa), ASEAN (Asia) EU (Europe)
  • Terrorism hijackings, 9/11, suicide bombings
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