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Inquiry 2 Emergence of a Civilization

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Title: Inquiry 2 Emergence of a Civilization Author: Michael Pantano Last modified by: Michael Pantano Created Date: 8/30/2009 9:46:17 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Inquiry 2 Emergence of a Civilization


1
Inquiry 2 Emergence of a Civilization
2
Homework for Unit 2
  • Page 30 1, 2, 3, 5
  • Page 34 1
  • Page 35 2, 3, 4 (skip a)
  • Page 38 1, 2, 3
  • Page 39 5
  • Page 42 1, 3, 4
  • Page 45 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

3
Writing
  • It is a means of communicating.
  • Plays a big part of our lives!

4
  • It has the following
  • People living together in a territory
  • Government to make laws
  • Systems of government democracy vs. dictatorship
  • School system (literacy)
  • Mathematics and science
  • Religion
  • Medicine
  • Technology
  • Traditions and culture
  • Entertainment and sports
  • Currency
  • Infrastructure (roads, bridges, highways, sewers,
    running water)

5
Why do you think writing was invented?
6
Why do you think laws are written down?
7
First seeds of civilization
  • Nile Valley
  • Mesopotamian
  • Indus Valley
  • Chinese

8
Irrigation use in agriculture
  • All 4 civilizations developed on fertile land and
    near rivers.
  • Each spring, the water levels rose and spilled
    over the banks and flooded the area for several
    months.

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vKi8S5I83Ccc
https//www.youtube.com/watch?v5RP2KfewiJA
9
  • Water levels eventually receded (went back down)
    and left behind silt (fertile mud) on the ground.
  • Farmers now had fertile soil to grow crops.

10
What do you notice?
11
Irrigation projects
  • Because it only flooded once a year, how would
    farmers get water to the crops once the dry
    season began?
  • IRRIGATION! It involves capturing water and
    sending it across the crop fields on a daily
    basis.

12
Irrigation projects involved
  • 1. Building canals to get water to fields.

13
  • 2. Ditches carried the water from the canal
    directly to the crop fields.
  • A ditch is a narrow channel dug in the ground.

14
  • 3. Building dikes to retain water in canal.

15
How did agriculture affect civilizations?
  • It allowed more people to be fed and families to
    grow in numbers (population increase)
  • Villages grew into cities.

16
  • A chief ruled and passed laws which everyone had
    to follow.
  • Written laws were formal, permanent and
    undisputable (incontestable not open to
    question).
  • These cities became organizedthis is what a
    civilization is!

17
Why did the Mesopotamians invent writing?
  • They needed to record and communicate information
    to others.
  • Keeping track of food surpluses (leftover) would
    be impossible without recording quantities.

18
Labour was organized into 4 trade
groupsIn other words, people were divided
into 4 job categories
19
Food surpluses lead to the creation of more trade
groups
  • What is a trade group?
  • People belonging to the same type of occupation.
  • Needed and relied on each other.
  • Provided each other with goods and services.

20
1. Peasants (farmers)
  • They produced food (ex wheat, barley, sesame,
    and millet)
  • They raised livestock.
  • Majority of civilians were peasants.

21
2. Artisans
  • Made tools, pots, weapons, bricks, etc.
  • Built houses, public buildings, boats and wagons.

22
3. Merchants
  • Bartered (traded) with other Mesopotamian cities
    and with people living outside of Mesopotamia.

23
4. Soldiers
  • Protected the goods and territory from thieves.
  • Protected roads travelled by merchants.

24
Trade
  • Merchants travelled long distances to trade.
  • Mesopotamia traded food surpluses for products
    that they did not have.
  • What products did other civilizations give to
    Mesopotamia?
  • 1. Hittites offered copper, lead, silver, iron
  • 2. Canaanites offered copper, bronze, tin, gold.
  • 3. People from the Zagros mountains offered iron
    and steel.

25
Evolution of Writing
  • People began writing around 3,500 BC.
  • They started by drawing objects, and engraved
    their drawings (called pictograms) on moist clay
    tablets.

The writing system first started in the form of
pictures, technically known as pictograms. In
Egypt, the first pictogram dates back to around
6000 BCE.
26
CLAY A stiff, sticky fine-grained earth,
typically yellow, red, or bluish-gray in color
and often forming an impermeable layer in the
soil. It can be molded when wet, and is dried and
baked to make bricks, pottery, and ceramics.
27
Pictogram or pictograph
  • System of writing whereby ideas are passed on
    through drawing.
  • Used worldwide since around 9000 BC.

28
  • What about detailed ideas? Emotions? Figures of
    speech? Sarcasm?
  • Pictograms were simple and quite limited in what
    they could describe.

29
From Pictograms to CUNEIFORM WRITING
  • Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known
    systems of writing (Sumerians)
  • A stylus (twig) was used to make wedge-shaped
    marks on damp clay tablets .

30
  • Cuneiform means "wedge-shaped
  • Cuneiform writing began in Sumer (3800 BC).

31
Evolution of writing in Sumer
32
How was the Mesopotamian Society Organised?
  • It was a hierarchical society.
  • A persons hierarchical position depended
    wealth, type of job and who he knew.
  • Ex Artisans were skilled and harder to replace
    than farmers. Therefore, they were more valued
    than farmers.

33
Hierarchy (vertical society)
34
Mesopotamia
  • This region had 10 major cities.
  • Located between Euphrates Tigris Rivers
  • Each city was independent, built near rivers and
    surrounded by protective walls.

35
  • Higher city
  • Inhabited by all the important people
  • Harder to get to because it was built on a mound.
  • All the important institutions buildings were
    located (temples, the ziggurat, the royal palace
    and food/supply warehouses etc.).

36
Each city was divided into 2 parts
  • Lower city
  • Inhabited by the peasants
  • This part of the city would be quickly overtaken
    by the enemy.

37
  • Higher city
  • All the important people lived here.
  • Difficult to reach because its on a hill
  • All the important institutions buildings were
    located here
  • Temples
  • Ziggurat
  • Royal palace
  • Food warehouses.

38
  • Higher city was safer than lower city because it
    is velevated than the lower city.

39
Social groups in Mesopotamia
  • The king (inherited power)
  • Supreme ruler of all major Mesopotamian cities.
  • Managed the army, irrigation projects and food
    supplies.
  • Represented the Gods on Earth

A powerful king called Gilgamesh ruled the city
of Uruk.
40
  • The Elite
  • High priests
  • Army commanders
  • Rich merchants.
  • Advised the king and carried out his orders

FileCMOC Treasures of Ancient China exhibit -
tri-coloured figure of a civil official.jpg
41
  • The Free people
  • Priests
  • Artisans
  • Farmers (peasants)
  • Hard-working merchants
  • Soldiers
  • Civil servants
  • Farmers gave crops to the king (tax payment)

42
  • The slaves
  • Prisoners of war.
  • Had no rights.
  • Received no wages () for their work.

43
Law and Justice
  • The kings authority ensured stability and unity.
  • Written laws ensured that justice was served!
  • Anyone caught violating/breaking laws were
    punished.
  • These laws applied to everyone.

44
The Code of Hammurabi
  • Oldest written law code that exists.
  • Hammurabi had these laws engraved on a stele.

45
  • King Hammurabi, standing with his hand raised
  • Man sitting Shamash, God of the Sun and Justice
  • The 282 laws of the Code of Hammurabi

46
Were these laws just? Fair?
  • No. The punishment for breaking the law was not
    the same for everyone.
  • What you did for a living, who you knew and what
    you owned played (called social status) a big
    part on the severity of the punishment for
    breaking a law.
  • The punishment was harsher for a peasant than a
    member of the elite.

47
  • For crimes against persons
  • The code applied the law of retaliation (an eye
    for an eye!) which meant that the criminal would
    receive the same damage he had inflicted onto his
    victim.
  • Family issues
  • The code sought to protect women and children.
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