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Technologies for meeting the global challenges of the 21st century Priorities for the current decade

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Technologies for meeting the global challenges of the 21st century Priorities for the current decade J.P.CONTZEN IST, LISBOA The global challenges of the 21st Century ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Technologies for meeting the global challenges of the 21st century Priorities for the current decade


1
Technologies for meeting the global challenges of
the 21st century Priorities for the current
decade
  • J.P.CONTZEN
  • IST, LISBOA

2
The global challenges of the 21st Century (1)
  • Two main challenges beyond, or together with,
    economic growth promote human development and
    reduce threats to the environment
  • Human development i.e. raising the level of
    well-being of a growing number of people
  • Improve health conditions
  • Fight hunger, poverty, social exclusion,
    illiteracy
  • Ensure peace and stability

3
The global challenges of the 21st Century (2)
  • Threats to the environment
  • Remediate to the scarcity of renewable and
    non-renewable resources
  • Water stress
  • Food production stress
  • Energy stress
  • People are no longer scarce, but nature is

4
The global challenges of the 21st Century (3)
  • Threats to the environment (cont.)
  • Control growing urbanization
  • Fight land degradation
  • Fight environmental pollution greenhouse gases,
    Pops, EDCs in water, air, soil

5
The global challenges of the 21st Century (4)
  • A few figures
  • Poverty in the last 2 decades, the world output
    grew by more than 20, but the number of poor
    people has risen also by more than 20. The
    poorest fifth of humanity survives on less than
    1 a day
  • Hunger 790 million people are living in hunger
  • Social exclusion at global level, income from
    work rose only by 2, as opposed to a 59
    increase in income from capital

6
The global challenges of the 21st Century (5)
  • A few figures (cont.)
  • Health
  • Taking care of elderly people over the past 50
    years, the life expectancy has risen more than in
    the last 4,000 years, leading to new geriatric
    issues
  • Combating infectious diseases
  • A young child dies every three seconds,
    essentially from infectious diseases

7
The global challenges of the 21st Century (6)
  • A few figures (cont.)
  • AIDS 33.6 million people living with AIDS, 3
    million dead in 2000
  • Resurrection of TB, about 1.5 million people die
    each year from TB. Nearly 2 billion people live
    with latent TB infection
  • Measles lead to some 900 000 fatalities per year,
    malaria kills 3,000 people every day

8
The global challenges of the 21st Century (7)
  • A few figures (cont.)
  • Water Stress only 2.5 of world water can
    support human life. Water use during 20th Century
    grew at more than the rate of population
    increase. In 2025, 2/3 of world population could
    be under water stress conditions stress starts
    when more than 10 of renewable fresh water
    resources are used already now 460 million
    people are above the 40

9
The global challenges of the 21st Century (8)
  • A few figures (cont.)
  • Land Degradation and Food Production Stress 1.9
    Billion hectares of land worldwide (size of US
    Canada) are currently affected by degradation,
    threatening the food security of more than 900
    million people in 100 countries

10
The global challenges of the 21st Century (9)
  • A few figures (cont.)
  • Energy Stress still 2 billion people have no
    access to modern energy services and the world
    population is expected to double in the next
    century. One challenge is to make energy
    available to the poor at prices that they can
    cope with, another challenge is to provide CLEAN
    energy everywhere. The objectives of the Kyoto
    Protocol cover only the tip of the iceberg

11
The global challenges of the 21st Century (10)
  • Should the description of these challenges lead
    to a pessimistic outlook? No!
  • The future lies in a combination of good
    governance at all levels (local communities,
    regions, nations, continents, world) and of
    appropriate use of technologies
  •  May the rains come on time! May there be a
    bountiful harvest! May the world be contented!
    May the rulers be righteous!
  • Ancient Pali verse

12
The global challenges of the 21st Century (11)
  • Technologies have become a major instrument of
    economic and social policy and could become the
    major force of social change in the next 10 years
  • A stronger link between the politicians, the
    representatives and the ST community is urgently
    required while paradoxically it is the time when
    the gap in the understanding of ST by
    decision-makers and the civil society is at its
    lowest level since decades

13
The global challenges of the 21st Century (12)
  • Technologies have already supported global
    development in many areas growing economic
    wealth, lessened work, life expectancy, extension
    of the available energy resource base, increase
    in agricultural productivity
  • Technologies have extended so far the carrying
    capacity of our Planet. Over the next two
    generations, we will need technologies that can
    more than double the capacity of humankind to
    perform activities in ways that do not further
    degrade the life support systems of our planet

14
The role of technologies (1)
  • What is the technological offer capable of
    meeting such challenge? An combination of
  • further advancements in
  • Information and Communications technologies
  • Biotechnologies
  • Energy technologies
  • Materials
  • and
  • the emergence of Nanotechnologies

15
The role of technologies (2)
  • Information and Communications technologies
  • Some challenges
  • Improved accessibility10 PC, Internet access in
    own language, widespread low-cost access lines
  • e-Commerce for all, instrument of economic and
    social development
  • e-Health the virtual medical city
  • e-Education virtual Higher Education, lifelong
    learning
  • e-Government a new life for democracy?

16
The role of technologies (3)
  • Information and Communications technologies
    (cont.)
  • Some dangers
  • The digital divide poor/rich, young/old
  • The loss of cultural diversity
  • The development of cyber-crime
  • The loss of privacy
  • The domination of economic oligopoles

17
The role of technologies (4)
  • Biotechnologies
  • Biotechnology is currently a major driving force
    in technological innovation. Its impact in the
    socio-economic world is significant and it offers
    the promises, if adequately managed, to lead to a
    win-win scenario, combining economic and social
    benefits and reducing the North-South divide.

18
The role of technologies (5)
  • Biotechnologies (cont.)
  • It is a big source of money
  • global biotechnology product sales in 2003 23
    billion , forecasted 85 billion in 2010
  • US alone 16 billion divided in
  • Human therapeutics/drugs 74.0
  • Human diagnostics 13.5
  • Agriculture 7.0
  • Specialties (chemicals, etc.) 3.5
  • Non-medical diagnostics 2.0
  • Source European Chemical News
  • January 20th, 2003

19
The role of technologies (6)
  • Biotechnologies (cont.)
  • It is also a big source of hope
  • Immense impact on health
  • Enhancement of food production
  • Promising impact for the protection of the
    environment clean production of chemicals,
    detection of pollutants, bioremediation

20
The role of technologies (7)
  • Biotechnologies (cont.)
  • The health preoccupation is reflected by the
    large share of the market. Human diagnostics is
    an area of particular growth. Agricultural
    products, GMOs in particular, constitute the
    most publicized trade issue, while in fact they
    represent less than 10 of the total market.

21
The role of technologies (8)
  • Biotechnologies in the health sector
  • Some challenges
  • Justified recourse to stem cells
  • Exploitation of protein engineering, genomics,
    combinatorial chemistry
  • Generalized access to human diagnostics
  • Development of animals as production factories
    for human pharmaceuticals

22
The role of technologies (9)
  • Biotechnologies in the agricultural sector
  • Some challenges
  • Produce higher yields raise biological
    productivity without associated ecological harm
  • Increase resistance to drought, to sea-water
    intrusion
  • These technologies can benefit enormously from
    the gene revolution

23
The role of technologies (10)
  •  The 20th Century began with the rediscovery of
    Mendels laws of inheritance. It ended with the
    moving of specific genes across sexual barriers
    with the help of molecular mapping and
    recombinant DNA technology
  • M.S.Swaminathan 

24
The role of technologies (11)
  • Biotechnologies in the environmental field
  • Some challenges
  • Develop biological waste management and land
    remediation
  • Introduce  smart  water treatment
  • Produce safer fertilizers

25
The role of technologies (12)
  • Biotechnologies
  • Some dangers
  • Remaining unclear about ethical issues such as
    human cloning or sex determination (impact in
    India or China!) Bioethics
  • Failing to exercise global governance on the
    issue of gene technology in agriculture and
    environmental protection Biosafety
  • Facilitate bio-terrorism Biosecurity

26
The role of technologies (13)
  • Energy technologies
  • Some challenges
  • Widen the clean use of hydrocarbons Fuel Cells
    (local co-generation, transportation, µ
    batteries)
  • Consider the clean use of coal coal
    gasification, liquefaction together with methods
    for CO² sequestration
  • Develop hydrogen as an energy vector

27
The role of technologies (14)
  • Energy technologies (cont.)
  • Some challenges
  • Improve energy storage, all the way from the
    smallest (micro batteries) to the largest size
    (GWh storage rings)
  • Review energy distribution methods, notably for
    developing countries
  • Review the architecture of electricity networks
    in terms of stability (contribution of  wild 
    sources) and vulnerability.

28
The role of technologies (13)
  • Energy technologies
  • Some dangers
  • Antagonizing growth and environmental protection.
  • In particular, being too emotional about the
    future of nuclear energy and the environmental
    impact of geothermal and of big hydro

29
The role of technologies (14)
  • Materials  the hidden side of technological
    spearheading 
  • Some challenges
  • The development of nanomaterials
  • The realization of very large structural elements
  • The development of intelligent materials self
    healing, failure warning, shape memory
  • The increase in service life
  • The exploitation of surface functionality

30
The role of technologies (15)
  • Nanotechnologies. The emerging revolution
  • Some challenges
  • Applications in new fabrication techniques,
    nano-scale production processes
  • Use in health diagnostics
  • New applications in ICTs, quantum computing
  • Use in µ energy storage
  • Development of self organizing micro-robots

31
The role of technologies (16)
  • Nanotechnologies
  • Some dangers
  • Ignoring health safety aspects
  • Favoring nano-tech weapons
  • Leading to evolution beyond control

32
In conclusion (1)
  • Technologies benefit from the tremendous vitality
    of upstream science that opens new horizons for
    meeting the formidable global challenges of the
    21st Century
  • The development of technologies is not without
    danger but self restraint and good political
    governance should limit their possible negative
    impact

33
In conclusion (2)
  • Any judgment about the role of technology should
    be made in view of global challenges and not
    solely on the basis of local politics
  • There is now a unique opportunity to reconcile
    technology and peoples basic aspirations
  •  Technology is increasingly seen as a primary
    opportunity for breaking the  Gordian knot 
    between increased economic activity and decreased
    environmental quality 
  • Tom Jones, OECD Environment Directorate
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