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Chapter%2011%20The%20Project%20Team

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Title: Chapter%2011%20The%20Project%20Team


1
Chapter 11The Project Team
2
Learning Objectives
  • The development and growth of teams
  • Characteristics of effective project teams
  • Team building
  • Sources of conflict and approaches to handling
    conflict
  • Problem solving
  • Effective time management

2
2
2
3
Real World Example
  • Vignette A Super Team
  • The project started in July 2000 with summer camp
    and the objective for the Baltimore Ravens was
    clear Win the Super Bowl.
  • The vision was created by head coach Brian
    Billick, a leader full of positive energy with a
    deep knowledge of the game.
  • After compiling a 16-4 record and cruising to a
    34-7 victory against the New York Giants, the
    mission was accomplished.
  • All of the players understood the strategy and
    the mission, and their role in the process. We
    played as a team and won as a team!

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3
3
4
Real World Example
  • Vignette Putting People First
  • Projects are often too technical, when they
    should be about people.
  • The people aspect is still not recognized as
    crucial to project success.
  • Teams should approach projects as a process of
    learning explore divergent views periodically
    stop and capture lessons learned throughout the
    project and take responsibility for making
    things happen.

5
Recommendations for Project Managers.
  • Show respect and consideration for all employees,
  • Make sure individuals understand their
    responsibilities and the performance standards,
  • Establish good communication,
  • Establish clear individual and group goals,
  • Properly reward teamwork, and
  • Demonstrate loyalty to the team.

4
4
6
Project Team Development and Effectiveness
  • In many projects, people who have never worked
    together are assigned to the same project team.
  • Personal relationships take time to develop.
  • Teams evolve through various stages of
    development.

5
7
Stages of Team Development and Growth
  • Forming
  • Storming
  • Norming
  • Performing

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Forming
  • First stage in team development.
  • Involves the transition from individual to team.
  • Individuals get acquainted.
  • Members generally have positive expectations.
  • Little work is actually accomplished.

7
9
Forming (Cont.)
  • Project manager must provided direction and
    structure.
  • Individuals do a lot of questioning
  • What is our purpose?
  • Who are the other team members?
  • What are they like?
  • Project constraints must be stated.

8
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Storming
  • Second stage in team development.
  • Members start to work on their assigned tasks.
  • Members begin to test the limits and flexibility
    of the project manager.
  • Conflict and tension increase.
  • Motivation and morale are low.

9
11
Storming (Cont.)
  • Members express their individuality not team
    allegiance.
  • Project managers should
  • be somewhat directive.
  • Not become defensive or take issues personally.
  • Provide an understanding and supportive
    environment.

10
12
Norming
  • Third stage of team development.
  • Relationships become settled.
  • Interpersonal conflicts have been resolved.
  • Cohesion begins to develop.
  • Project manager minimizes directiveness.
  • Work performance accelerates and productivity
    increases.

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Performing
  • Final stage of team development.
  • Team is highly committed and eager to achieve the
    project objective.
  • Level of work performance is high.
  • Communication is open.
  • Members collaborate and help each other.

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14
Performing (Cont.)
  • The project manager
  • fully delegates responsibility and authority.
  • Concentrates on project performance.
  • Acts as a mentor.

13

15
The Effective Project Team
  • Characteristics of effective project teams
  • a clear understanding of the project objective
  • clear expectations of each persons role and
    responsibilities
  • a results orientation
  • a high degree of cooperation and collaboration

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Barriers to Team Effectiveness
  • Unclear Goals
  • Unclear Definition of Roles and Responsibilities
  • Lack of Project Structure
  • Lack of Commitment
  • Poor Communication
  • Poor Leadership
  • Turnover of Project Team Members
  • Dysfunctional Behavior

15
17
Characteristics of Effective Team Members
  • Plan, control, and feel accountable for their
    individual work efforts.
  • Have high expectations.
  • Are self-directed and follow through on
    assignments.
  • Take pride in doing quality work.
  • Participate and communicate.
  • Are problem identifiers and problem solvers.

16

18
Effective Team Members (Cont.)
  • Put the success of the project above personal
    gain.
  • It has been said that there is no I in TEAMthere
    are no individual winners or losers.

17
19
Team Building
  • Team building is an ongoing process.
  • It is the responsibility of the project manager
    and the project team.
  • Socialization among team members supports team
    building.
  • The project team can initiate social events to
    celebrate project events.

18
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Team Meetings
  • The team can periodically call team meetings.
  • The purpose is to discuss questions such as
  • How are we working as a team?
  • What barriers are impeding teamwork?
  • What can we do to overcome these barriers?
  • What can we do to improve teamwork?
  • Only team-related issues should be discussed

19
21
Conflict on Projects
  • You might think conflict is bad and should be
    avoided.
  • Conflict is inevitable and can be beneficial.
  • Differences of opinion are natural and must be
    expected.
  • It provides many opportunities for growth.

20
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Sources of Conflict
  • Work Scope
  • Resources Assignments
  • Schedule
  • Cost
  • Priorities
  • Organizational Issues
  • Personal Differences

21
23
Handling Conflict
  • Conflict should be handled by those involved.
  • Handled properly, conflict can be beneficial.
  • Conflict stimulates discussion.
  • Conflict can foster creativity.
  • Conflict can help team building.

22
24
Approaches to Handling Conflict
  • Avoiding or Withdrawing
  • Competing or Forcing
  • Accommodating or Smoothing
  • Compromising
  • Collaborating, Confronting or Problem Solving

23
25
Nine-Step Approach to Problem Solving
  • Develop a problem statement.
  • Identify potential causes of the problem.
  • Gather data and verify the likely causes.
  • Identify possible solutions.
  • Evaluate the alternative solutions.
  • Determine the best solution.
  • Revise the project plan.
  • Implement the solution.
  • Determine if the problem has been solved.

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26
Brainstorming
  • Used in problem solving in which all members
    contribute spontaneous ideas.
  • A way to generate a lot of ideas and have fun.
  • The quantity of ideas is more important than the
    quality of ideas.
  • Members should be encouraged to come up with
    novel ideas.

25
27
Brainstorming The Process
  • The team sits around a table, with a facilitator
    at a flip chart to record ideas.
  • Each member states an idea in turn.
  • Some people will come up with ideas that build on
    ideas previously mentioned.
  • This process continues until no one can come up
    with any more ideas or the time limit is up.

26
28
Brainstorming Two Rules
  • No immediate discussion of ideas
  • No judgmental comments

27
29
Time Management
  • Some suggestions for effectively managing your
    time
  • At the end of each week, identify several goals
    for the following week.
  • At the end of each day, make a to-do list.
  • Read the daily to-do list each day.
  • Control interruptions.
  • Learn to say no.
  • Make effective use of waiting time.

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Time Management
  • More suggestions
  • Try to handle paperwork only once.
  • Reward yourself at the end of the week if you
    accomplished all your goals.

29
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