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Title: Communication%20and%20Emergent%20Literacy:%20Early%20Intervention%20Issues


1
Communication and Emergent Literacy Early
Intervention Issues
  • Communication Development and
  • the Impact of Visual Impairments
  • Session 2
  • Early Intervention Training Center for Infants
    and Toddlers With Visual Impairments
  • FPG Child Development Institute, 2005

2
Objectives
  • After completing this session, participants will
  • describe seven levels of communicative
    competence.
  • describe the development of communication and
    language in typically developing children from
    birth through 36 months.
  • define language, and describe five elements of
    language.

2A
3
Objectives
  • After completing this session, participants will
  • explain the importance of caregiver
    responsiveness in parent-child attachment and
    communication.
  • describe the importance of concept development
    for communication and why children with visual
    impairments may develop concepts differently.


2B
4
Objectives
  • After completing this session, participants will
  • describe six modes of nonlinguistic/
    prelinguistic communication, and explain how
    visual impairments may prevent children from
    engaging in typical nonlinguistic/prelinguistic
    communicative behaviors.

2C
5
Objectives
  • After completing this session, participants will
  • describe the potential impact of visual
    impairments on nonlinguistic/prelinguistic
    communication, including the development of
    idiosyncratic communicative behaviors of children
    with visual impairments and additional
    disabilities.
  • describe the potential impact of visual
    impairments, with and without additional
    disabilities, on language development.

2D
6
Seven Levels of Communicative Competence
  • As children develop, they become more competent
    at communicating and progress through seven
    levels of competence.
  • Rowland Stremel-Campbell, 1987

2E
7
Levels I and II
  • Level I Pre-intentional behavior
  • Reflexive behavior that reflects the
  • childs state (e.g., hungry, sleepy)
  • Level II Intentional behavior
  • Behavior is intentional but not intended to
    communicate
  • At these levels, caregivers interpret behaviors
  • as communicative although the child does not
  • intend to communicate.
  • Rowland
    Stremel-Campbell, 1987

2F
8
Levels III and IV
  • Level III Nonconventional presymbolic
    communication
  • Nonconventional gestures used in an attempt to
    affect caregivers behavior
  • Examples laugh, babble
  • Level IV Conventional presymbolic communication
  • Conventional gestures used to influence
    caregivers behavior
  • Examples wave, point, nod, kiss
  • Rowland Stremel-Campbell, 1987

2G
9
Levels V and VI
  • Level V Concrete Symbolic Communication Use of
    concrete symbols that share features of the
    referent
  • Examples make animal sounds, use depictive
    gestures (e.g., arms up for hold me)
  • Level VI Abstract Symbolic Communication Limited
    use of abstract symbols (e.g., spoken words)
  • Example speech or sign used one word at a time
  • Rowland Stremel-Campbell, 1987

2H
10
Level VII
  • Level VII Formal Symbolic Communication
  • Rule-bound (adult-like) use of abstract
    communication system
  • Example combining two or more words to
    communicate
  • Rowland Stremel-Campbell, 1987

2I
11
Receptive Communication in Infants
  • Infants attend to human voices and become excited
    when parents approach.
  • Infants begin to smile when adults smile and calm
    when picked up while crying.
  • Infants respond to their name by 6 months.
  • Adamson, 1996
  • Sachs, 1997

2J
12
Nonintentional Communication
  • Newborn infants do not intend to communicatethey
    simply react.
  • Nonintentional communication dominates the first
    6 to 8 months of life as children learn to engage
    in behaviors that elicit adult responses.
  • Owens, 2001
  • Sachs, 1997

2K
13
Expressive Communication in Infants
  • Examples of early nonlinguistic
  • communication include
  • crying,
  • laughing,
  • cooing, and
  • babbling.
  • Owens, 2001
  • Sachs, 1997

2L
14
Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Communication
  • Language is symbolicbased on sounds that
  • represent objects, people, events, actions, etc.
  • Nonsymbolic communication includes
  • vocalizations (e.g., babbling, crying),
  • gestures,
  • facial expressions, and
  • social referencing (i.e., looking to an adult to
  • determine how to respond to a novel
  • situation).

2M
15
Nonsymbolic Communication
  • Other forms of nonsymbolic communication
  • include
  • joint visual attention (i.e., looking at the same
  • object that an adult looks at) and
  • responsiveness to a communicative partner.
  • Infants use nonsymbolic
  • communication
  • to gain an adults attention and
  • to express desires and needs.

2N
16
Individual Differences in Development
  • Children with and without disabilities vary
    considerably in the ages at which they attain
    communication and language milestones.
  • The ages associated with milestone acquisition in
    typically developing children provide a reference
    point only, and should be viewed cautiously.
  • Children with disabilities, and particularly
    those with multiple disabilities, may show
    tremendous variability in the ages at which they
    attain developmental milestones.

2O
17
First Words
  • 10 to 18 months first true word
  • 10 to 18 months points to an object and uses
    word approximation
  • 12 to 18 months vocabulary of 3 to 20 words 50
    of words are nouns
  • 12 to 18 months uses phrases such as
    All gone and Want more begins using verbs
    and adjectives

2P
18
Expressive Language of the Toddler
  • 2 years approximately 65 of speech is
    intelligible, with 50 recognizable words
  • 2½ years 70 of speech is intelligible, with
    200 words
  • Answers Where?, What . . .doing?, and What do you
    hear? questions
  • Uses two-word phrases including negation (e.g.,
    No bed), possessives (e.g., Mommy car), and
    pronouns (e.g., Me Janey)

2Q
19
Expressive Language of the Toddler
  • 3 years 80 of speech is usually
  • intelligible, with 500 words
  • Asks simple questions and repeats
  • sentences
  • Uses articles such as a and the
  • Uses contractions and ing endings
  • 25 of utterances are nouns and 25 are verbs

2R
20
Receptive Language of the Toddler
  • 12 to 18 months
  • Follows simple one-step commands
  • Points to one to three body parts
  • Identifies one or
  • two objects from a
  • group of objects

2S
21
Receptive Language of the Toddler
  • Between 18 and 24 months
  • Comprehends
  • about 300 words
  • Interested in
  • listening to stories

2T
22
Receptive Language of the Toddler
  • 2½ years
  • Comprehends 500 words
  • Listens to 5-10 minutes of a story
  • Carries out two related commands
  • 3 years
  • Comprehends 900 words
  • Knows concept words such as in/on and big/little

2U
23
Elements of Language
  • Phonologyrules that govern the use of speech
    sounds
  • Morphologyrules that determine the internal
    organization of words
  • Semanticsrules that determine the meaning of
    words and word combinations

2V
24
Elements of Language
  • Syntaxrules that govern the form or
    structure of a sentence
  • Pragmaticsrules that governs how a given
    language is used in different social contexts and
    environments

2W
25
Attachment
  • Attachment describes the emotional connection
    between people in intimate relationships such as
    parent and child.
  • Zeanah Boris, 2000

2X
26
Attachment
  • Examples of behaviors that encourage attachment
    are
  • crying,
  • smiling,
  • crawling toward a caregiver, and
  • clinging to a caregiver.

2Y
27
Attachment and Visual Impairment
  • Attachment behaviors may be delayed, occur less
    frequently, or occur with less clarity, in
    children with visual impairments.
  • Caregiver responsiveness is the most important
    factor in encouraging attachment with children
    with visual impairments.
  • Fazzi, 2002
  • Warren Hatton, 2003

2Z
28
Attachment and Visual Impairment
  • Responsiveness includes reading children's
    signals to know when they want to interact, when
    they are tired or overstimulated, and what
    interests the child.
  • Fazzi, 2002
  • Warren Hatton, 2003

2AA
29
Facilitating Attachment
  • Talk to children before picking them up.
  • Give children time to adjust to new situations.
  • Look for subtle responses such as changes in
    breathing or body posture.
  • Allow children to touch your face in order to
    recognize you.
  • Carry infants in cloth baby carriers (chest or
    back) during daily routines and when
    participating in community activities.

  • Ferrell, 1985

2BB
30
Facilitating Nonlinguistic/ Prelinguistic
Communication
  • Turn-takingparents wait for child to act, then
  • imitate, and follow childs lead.

2CC
31
Facilitating Nonlinguistic/ Prelinguistic
Communication
  • Social routinesteach turn-taking and patterns
    while providing consistency for a communicative
    exchange.
  • Interactive matchingparents adjust their
    interaction style to match childrens pace, level
    of functioning, and lead.
  • Environmental arrangementcan prompt children to
    use gestures or vocalizations to secure toys.

2DD
32
What is concept development?
  • A concept is a general idea that develops through
    repeated experiences with specific events.
  • Children need repeated experiences with specific
    examples to generalize concepts.
  • Warren Hatton, 2003

2EE
33
Movement
  • Children with visual impairments often have
    delays in motor development.
  • Delayed motor development impedes movement and
    exploration.
  • Lack of exploration directly impacts concept
    development and communication.
  • Adelson Fraiberg, 1974
  • Jan, Sykanda, Groenveld, 1990
  • Palazesi, 1986

2FF
34
Concept Development
  • Provide children with multiple active experiences
    to build concepts.
  • Children learn concepts through natural
    experiences and play.
  • Concepts are best learned within functional
    activities.
  • Children with visual impairments are often
    delayed in concept development due to loss of
    visual input and delays in self-initiated
    movement.

2GG
35
Promoting Concept Development
  • Take advantage of naturally occurring events
    (e.g., accidents, a dump truck on the street).
  • Expose children to concepts in the home and in
    the community.

2HH
36
Six Modes of Nonlinguistic/ Prelinguistic
Communication
  • There are six modes of nonlinguistic/prelinguistic
  • communication between infant and caregiver.
  • Proxemicmovement toward or away from the
    caregiver
  • Kinesicrecognition of facial expressions
  • Gesturalchild reaching toward caregiver


2II
37
Six Modes of Nonlinguistic/ Prelinguistic
Communication
  • There are six modes of nonlinguistic
    communication between infant and caregiver.
  • Ocularlooking behaviors shared between infant
    and caregiver
  • Tactile-kinesthetictouching between infant and
    caregiver
  • Vocalvocalizations from the infant to the
    caregiver, combines vision and hearing

2JJ
38
Influence of VI on Modes of Nonlinguistic
Communication
  • All, except tactile-kinesthetic, rely partly or
    entirely on visual input.
  • Visual impairments limit or alter other modes of
    communication.
  • Visual impairments may decrease childrens
    communicative initiations about objects in the
    environment.
  • Sapp, 2001

2KK
39
Key Issues From Research
  • Children with visual impairments engage in
    nonlinguistic communication that is interpreted
    by and responded to by their mothers.
  • The repertoire of communicative behaviors of
    children with visual impairments is more limited
    than their peers.
  • Preisler, 1991
  • Rowland, 1984
  • Urwin, 1984

2LL
40
Key Issues From Research
  • Mothers of children with visual impairments
    engage in patterns of communication that differ
    from mothers of typically sighted children.
  • Children with visual impairments smile, coo, and
    attempt to imitate adult speech at similar ages
    as children with sight.
  • Preisler, 1991
  • Rowland, 1984
  • Urwin, 1984

2MM
41
Key Issues From Research
  • Children with visual impairments use imitation to
    elicit communicative responses from mothers, and
    they respond to their mothers use of routines
    for communication.
  • Children who are blind do not demonstrate
    conventional gestures (e.g. showing, waving, and
    nodding).
  • Preisler, 1991
  • Rowland, 1984
  • Urwin, 1984

2NN
42
Maternal Interactions and VI
  • Mothers of children with visual impairments
  • are more likely to be
    physically involved and
    to engage in
    controlling
    behaviors,
  • modify common interactive
    routines to encourage child
    participation, and
  • use routines that involve social play or
    imitation and are less likely to be action based.
  • Behl et al., 1996
  • Chen, 1996

2OO
43
Children With VI and Additional Disabilities
  • Parents face additional challenges in
    interpreting nonintentional communication.
  • Mothers engage in fewer positive and more
    negative interactions with children with multiple
    disabilities than do mothers of sighted children.
  • Baird et al., 1997
  • Rogers Puchalski, 1984

2PP
44
Children With VI and Additional Disabilities
  • Mothers of children who have multiple
    disabilities identify fewer behaviors as
    communicative.
  • Children often vocalize less, are more negative
    in their vocalizations, and develop idiosyncratic
    ways of communicating.
  • Baird et al., 1997
  • Rogers Puchalski, 1984

2QQ
45
Development of Language in Children With VI
  • Phonology and morphology develop in children with
    VI at the same rate as in sighted children.
  • Semantics
  • The first 50 words of children with VI have
    more specific nouns and fewer general nouns than
    those of sighted children.
  • Children with VI are less skilled at verbal
    classification than are sighted children.

2RR
46
Pragmatics
  • Sighted children learn pragmatics through
    communicative/social interactions with adults and
    other children.
  • Children with visual impairments develop social
    smiles at the same time as typically developing
    children.
  • Conti-Ramsden Pérez-Pereira, 1999
  • Rogers Puchalski, 1986

2SS
47
Pragmatics
  • Children with visual impairments
  • ask more questions,
  • use questions to request an action from
    communication partners, and
  • rely more on routines, repetition, and imitation
    than do sighted children.
  • Erin, 1986 1990
  • Pérez-Pereira Castro, 1992 1997

2TT
48
Pragmatics
  • During communication, children with visual
    impairments have fewer verbal turns and more
    nonverbal turns than do their sighted peers.
  • Mothers of children with blindness initiate more
    communication than do mothers of children with
    low vision.
  • Conti-Ramsden Pérez-Pereira, 1999
  • Rogers Puchalski, 1986

2UU
49
Pragmatics
  • Children with visual impairments have difficulty
    learning to read body language.
  • Children with multiple disabilities initiate
    communication less frequently, and communicative
    partners spend less time facing the child.
  • Visual impairments may impede childrens ability
    to understand nonverbal aspects of communication.
  • Kekelis Prinze, 1996
  • Moore McConachie, 1994

2VV
50
Nonverbal Communication and Visual Impairments
  • After speech develops, many
  • aspects of communication
  • are still nonverbal
  • and can include
  • turn-taking,
  • body language,
  • initiations, and
  • responsivity.
  • Hala, 1997

2WW
51
Children With Multiple Disabilities
  • Children with multiple disabilities have delays
    in language development.
  • Children with multiple
  • disabilities may use
  • alternative systems including
  • touch cues,
  • augmentative
  • communication devices
  • (high- and low-tech),
  • signing, and
  • hand-in-hand signing.
  • Fazzi Klein, 2002

2XX
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