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The New Democrats

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The New Democrats Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison/Tyler, Polk, Taylor/Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan 1829-1861 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Democrats


1
The New Democrats
  • Jackson, Van Buren, Harrison/Tyler, Polk,
    Taylor/Fillmore, Pierce, Buchanan
  • 1829-1861

2
Andrew Jackson 1829-1837
3
Jackson
  • Hero to common man
  • Return to Jefferson
  • Cheap land
  • By 1833 all eastern Indians west of MS R.
  • Except Cherokees
  • Opposed internal improvements
  • Eliminated debt

4
The Tariff Controversy
  • Modest reduction
  • SC threatens nullification
  • Jackson threatens force gets tariff lowered
    SC backs down
  • Precedent force against states defying federal
    authority

5
Bank War
  • Privilege attacked
  • Bank symbol for unfairness (monster)
  • pet banks
  • Flood of paper money
  • Speculative boom
  • 1832 reelected w/54 of vote
  • Beat Clay

6
Jackson
  • Aggressive pushed congress
  • Peoples champion
  • The Veto
  • spoils system
  • Chief Justice Taney replaced Marshall

7
Legacy
  • Extends freedom opportunity
  • Common man now included
  • Democratic Party

8
Democrat Contradiction
  • Party of states rights, slaveholders,
    individual freedom

9
Martin Van Buren 1837-1841
10
1836 Election
  • VB defeats 3 Whigs
  • Adams-Clay Nat. Rep. Party
  • Anti-Jackson abuses
  • Public convinced nation going in right direction

11
Problems
  • Texas issue
  • Trail of Tears (4000 die)
  • Panic of 1837
  • Easy money get rich quick speculative boom
  • Deep depression
  • Cotton fell 50, banks suspend specie payments
  • Unemployed protest

12
  • Independent Treasury est.
  • Govt buried in subtreasuries
  • Public lost trust in Jacksons banking system
  • Huge opportunity for opposition party

13
Whig Party Take Over
  • 1840 Harrison easily defeats Van Buren
  • Colorful campaign
  • Democratic defeat will not end Jackson paradigm
  • Dies in 30 days
  • John Tyler former Democrat
  • Betrayed Whig economic program
  • Stole victory from Whigs

14
Democrats Back
  • 1844 Polk defeats Clay in close election
  • Program
  • Expansion - TX, CA, OR
  • Reduce tariff
  • Ind. Treas.
  • 1 term promise

15
James K. Polk 1845-1849
16
Achievements
  • OR Terr.
  • Mexican War
  • Easy victory
  • CA southwest
  • Gen. Zachary Taylor a hero
  • Reduced tariff
  • Ind. Treas.
  • Why were Dems. not rewarded

17
The Wilmot Proviso
  • New terr. threatens sectional balance
  • Northern Dems betrayed by pro-South tilt of party
  • 1846 Sen. Wilmot antislavery
  • Bill would ban slavery from new terr.
  • Not just about slavery
  • economics politics

18
Northern View
  • South blocking nations industrial development
  • Protective tariff
  • RR subsidies
  • More slave states make it worse

19
Southern View
  • North attracting immigrant wage earners
  • Urban centers
  • Controlling credit investment
  • Fear becoming second class colony to tyrannical
    North
  • Must expand slavery west

20
12 Year Struggle
  • Sectional conflict
  • Slavery the topic
  • Economics political power

21
Election 1848
  • Free Soil Party Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men
  • Took 10 of vote
  • conscience Democrats
  • Taylor defeats Cass
  • Whigs gain WH
  • Taylor dies
  • Fillmore pres.

22
Millard Fillmore 1850-1853
23
Compromise of 1850
  • Fate of slavery in new territories
  • Great senate debates
  • Henry Clay Stephen Douglas
  • Terms
  • North got CA DC slave trade abolished
  • South pop. sov. in NM UT. fugitive slave law
  • Did not repeal MO Compromise

24
Uncertain Future
  • RR growth CA gold best economy since Panic
    1837
  • Abolitionism growing in NE
  • Uncle Toms Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • 1850s 300,000 copies

25
Franklin Pierce 1853-1857
26
Democrats Return to WH
  • 1852 slavery issue settled
  • Pierce schemes to add Cuba
  • Far West RR
  • Jefferson Davis South route (easier)
  • Stephen Douglas North route
  • 1854 KS-NE Act
  • Pop. Sov.
  • Repealed MO Compromise

27
Tension Builds
  • Civil war in Kansas
  • Both sides send supporters

28
Republicans
  • antislavery
  • Ex-Free Soilers conscience Dems
  • All North no compromise w/ South
  • Business policies
  • High tariffs internal improvements
  • Federalist/Whig

29
Election 1856
  • bleeding Kansas
  • Dems pick Buchanan
  • Whigs break up
  • Republicans pick Fremont
  • Know Nothing Party pick Fillmore

30
Results
  • Know-Nothings 22
  • Buchanan Dems 45
  • Republican 11 of 16 free states
  • South knows abolitionists going to be a problem

31
James Buchanan 1857-1861
32
Disaster to Disaster
  • Dred Scott Case
  • Taney Court
  • Slavery legal in every terr.
  • North outraged

33
Kansas
  • Proposed slave state
  • Rigged
  • North outraged
  • Douglas leads attack
  • MN OR added free
  • KS denied

34
Buchanan
  • Dominated by South
  • Interests of N W ignored
  • Trying to pacify South
  • Cuba?
  • Mexico?

35
John Brown
  • Raid on Harpers Ferry, VA
  • Celebrated in North martyr
  • South stunned by North response

36
Panic of 1857
  • Deep depression
  • Cotton prices soared this time
  • South emboldened by economic power

37
1850s Excess of Democracy
  • Changes in society, economy, frontier produced
    excess of individualism
  • General rejection of traditional political
    authority solutions
  • Any attempt to curb individual behavior was
    undemocratic
  • Mob rule Federalist greatest fear

38
Election 1860
  • Abe Lincoln (R)
  • Obscure
  • Against spread of slavery
  • Pro expanding industry
  • Stephen Douglas (D-North)
  • Powerful senator
  • John Breckinridge (D-South)
  • Southern Dems split from North

39
Republicans
  • Exploited key contradiction in Dem
  • Individual freedom slavery
  • Jefferson freedom w/ Hamiltons economics
  • Promised free homesteads
  • Big party for all - except slavery
  • No room for credible opposition

40
Republican Victory
  • Lincoln 40
  • North finally in charge
  • No sympathy for South
  • South facing permanent minority status
  • SC 10 others bolt from Union
  • Jackson paradigm split in two rival armies
  • Civil War

41
Was It Just About Slavery?
  • Fight over the future
  • Wealth power shifting North
  • Railroads replacing cotton as key to economy
  • 18 free vs. 15 slave states
  • Way of life (soil vs. industry transportation)
  • Slavery tool crush the South

42
Summary
  • 32 years
  • Return to Jefferson
  • Expand democracy
  • Fought privilege helped common man
  • Extended frontier for ordinary people
  • Removed Indians
  • End national bank, lowered tariffs, cut fed
    spending
  • Dems dominate all three branches of govt
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