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Andrew Jackson in the White House


Andrews Jackson's Presidency (Continued) Andrew Jackson in the White House The Bank of the United States had a lot of power. It was able to print/coin money, back ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Andrew Jackson in the White House

Andrews Jackson's Presidency (Continued)
Andrew Jackson in the White House
The Bank of the United States had a lot of power.
It was able to print/coin money, back loans,
sell bonds and regulate loans between state
banks. When state banks were making too many
loans, the bank directors restricted the amount
of loans these banks could lend. This really
hurt farmers and merchants who borrowed the money.
Though many supported the national bank, Jackson
and other Democrats saw the bank as undemocratic.
Although Congress created the bank, it was run
by private bankers. These men grew rich and
powerful with public funds. Jackson especially
disliked Nicholas Biddle who had been president
of the bank since 1823.
Biddle and his senator friends, Henry Clay and
Daniel Webster (Whigs) decided to save the bank
and get rid of Jackson at the same time. They
persuaded Biddle to bring up the bank's renewal
early. Most Americans supported the bank if
Jackson vetoed its renewal, they were sure it
would anger the voters enough to not re-elect
Jackson DID veto the bank. He gave two reasons
for his veto a. He thought the bank was
unconstitutional b. He thought the bank only
helped rich aristocrats The Whigs chose Henry
Clay as their candidate against Jackson. The
common people supported Jackson and rejected the
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Without a new charter, the bank would close in
1836. Jackson didn't want to wait. He ordered
Roger Taney (Secretary of the Treasury) to
deposit all of the federal money into state
banks, known as pet banks because Taney and his
friends controlled many of them.
In 1828, Congress passed the highest tariff in
the nation's history called the Tariff of
Abominations (by Southerners). An abomination is
something that is hated. As a reminder, a tariff
is a tax on an imported good. Northerners
favored this policy, but Southerners who sold raw
materials to Europe did not agree.
Leading the tariff protest was Jackson's
vice-president, John C. Calhoun. He argued that
states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a
federal law that it felt was unconstitutional.
Southerners believed that states' rights
outweighed the federal government's authority
because they created the national government.
Many expected Jackson to agree with the
Southerners and Calhoun. His opinion became
clear when he stood and gave the toast, "Our
Federal Union - it must be preserved!" To
Calhoun, though, liberty was more important than
the Union. Soon, Calhoun resigned from the
office of Vice-President. The debate was far
from over!
Even though the Congress lowered the tariff,
South Carolina was not satisfied. It passed the
Nullification Act that declared the new tariff
illegal. It also threatened to secede, or
withdraw from the Union. Jackson took a firm
stand, and passed the Force bill, which let him
use the army, if necessary, to enforce the
tariff. With Henry Clay's compromise tariff,
South Carolina repealed the Nullification Act.
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Jackson took a firm stance on another key issue.
It affected Native Americans. Since colonial
times, white settlers had forced Native Americans
off of their lands. Leaders like Pontiac and
Tecumseh had been unsuccessful at stopping these
invasions. Tribes in the Southeast were being
forced off of their land because white settlers
wanted it for growing cotton. The Cherokee
nation, who had fought beside President Jackson
during the War of 1812, tried to adopt white
cultures and customs in an attempt to keep their
Chief John Ross
Rev. Wocester
They used the court system instead of military
resistance to try to do this. In the Supreme
Court case of Worcester V. Georgia, Chief Justice
John Marshall ruled in favor of the
Cherokee. President Jackson refused to enforce
the Court's decision. In 1830, Congress passed
and Jackson signed into law the Indian Removal
Act. This forced Native Americans to move west
of the Mississippi.
The Cherokee were forced from their land in 1838
by the US Army. They marched from Alabama and
Georgia all the way to Oklahoma. About one
fourth of the 15,000 Cherokee died on or as a
result of this trip. It is remembered as the
Trail of Tears.
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