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Tough Old Gut

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Title: Tough Old Gut


1
Tough Old Gut
2
Part I. North Africa
  • Hitlers Victories (against France, but also in
    keeping Britain pinned down during the Battle of
    Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic) allowed
    Mussolini the opportunity to rebuild the Roman
    Empire
  • Luftwaffe (and Italian air force) controlled the
    air over the Mediterranean, and so for a good
    spell it was mostly closed to allied shipping
  • Italians already held colonies in North Africa

3
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4
Italian Advantages
  • 215 k troops versus 50 k British troops
  • Dont forget, the British were desperately
    guarding their home island, the Middle East,
    Asia, etc.
  • Reading from Churchill (page 401)- 1940
    Englands greatest hour

5
Egypt/Suez Canal
6
British Torpedoed Italian Fleet at Taranto
  • Gave the British naval superiority in the
    Mediterranean (if only they could win the air)
  • Inspired the Japanese to consider Pearl Harbor
    attack

7
British Beat Back the Bad Battling Italians
  • I dont know much about how this happened
  • Hitler, worried about prestige, sent the
    Afrikakorp and Rommel (the Desert Fox)
  • Gained fame during the Blitzkrieg into France
  • Clip from Churchill (page 499-500) Unique aspects
    of desert warfare

8
The Afrikakorp Battered the British
  • Fortress at Tobruk Holds Out
  • Made it hard for Rommel to fully attack into
    Egypt
  • Eventually, Tobruk fell to a smaller German army
    (despite being fortified

9
Impact of Barbarossa
  • Drains off some of Hitlers manpower and focus
    from North Africa
  • for example, Germans lose air domination of
    Mediterranean and North Africa
  • Stalin wants a 2nd front in France
  • Allies agree only to step up their fighting in
    North Africa
  • Operation Torch- an Anglo-British landing in
    North West Africa (Morocco)
  • Churchill argued for another 2nd front in
    Norway
  • Compares his model to Britains left and right
    claws grabbing at Hitler, while the fangs prepare
    for a later frontal assault
  • There was an attack on Dieppe, in France, which
    was a much smaller D-Day
  • Had the advantage of a practice run, but pretty
    darn costly

10
After the Fall of Tobruk, Rommel Wants to Pierce
Egypt and take Suez and the Middle East
  • British commander in North Africa is relieved and
    replaced by Montgomery (Monty)
  • Anecdote about Montgomerys pity for Rommel (page
    613 and 614 in Churchill)
  • Morale grows under Montgomery

11
Pause as Both Sides Prepare A Decisive Battle in
Egypt
  • Eventual Battle will be at El Alamein
  • Problem for Rommel
  • Qattara Depression
  • Allies planted a phony map showing only one good
    route North of this depression
  • Then they super-fortified this route
  • Rommel bit
  • His attack was beaten back with heavy losses
  • He also started to have major supply problems as
    the allied air forces started to own the
    Mediterranean
  • Rommel himself was very ill at this point

12
Allied Counterattack is Delayed to Wait for the
perfect Moment
  • Clip on page 644 -645 of Churchill talking about
    the connection between luck and fate in world
    events

13
El Alamein
  • British built up a 2-1 numerical advantage in
    force
  • No opportunity for a fancy maneuver against the
    Germans they had a solid wall of resistance
  • blast a hole in their lines in broad daylight
  • See pages 648-653 for the action

14
Operation Torch
  • American and British attack into Northwest Africa
  • 1st time American ground forces would engage the
    Axis
  • U-boat danger in assembling a strike force
  • British ships sailed from England
  • U.S. ships from the U.S.
  • Allies managed to remain undetected since they
    increasingly controlled the skies
  • French forces put in a very awkward position
  • Their commanding officers are Vichy appointed,
    and thus collaborationist
  • To go against their commanders is treason -?
    death
  • As a result, many French soldiers and officers
    died fighting the Americans and British despite
    wanting the French and British to win
  • Churchill- We may all be thankful if our lives
    have not been rent by such dire problems and
    conflicting loyalties

15
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16
Part II- Italy
17
Sicily
  • Largest Amphibious invasion before D-Day
  • Argument among allied commanders
  • A) We should stop with our complete victory in
    North Africa and wait until next year (1944) with
    all of our forces for a direct assault on France
  • B) We cannot let our army sit useless for a year
    Russia needs us. Attack Italy.
  • Allies bombarded lots of places before invading
    Sicily to hide their intentions
  • Example, Sardinia
  • Bad weather on the day of the attack, which might
    have been a nightmare, but probably caused the
    defenders to let down their guards

18
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19
Sicily (cont.)
  • Glider forces sent in to capture a key bridge on
    Sicily
  • Over a third of them got lost and landed in the
    water- much drowning
  • Of the 65 soldiers who got to the bridge (and
    held it until they were relieved over a day
    later), 19 survived
  • Sicily has a great mountain in the middle of it,
    so Axis could watch allied troop movements
  • Nonetheless, Axis quickly decided to retreat to
    Italy
  • Sicily captured

20
The Fall of Mussolini
  • Rome was bombed after Sicily fell
  • Hitler couldnt send many reinforcements because
    of his Eastern front problems (we are now
    post-Stalingrad)
  • High ranking Italians removed Mussolini
  • They signed a treaty with the allies ending
    Italian resistance to the invasion of Italy
  • Hitler decided to defend Italy
  • Churchill called this a horrible blunder
  • By trying to hold all of his gains, he made it
    certain that he would lose all of them
  • He Hitler could, for instance, have met the
    British and Americans at the 40th or 50th day
    after their landing in Normandy a year later with
    fresh and greatly superior forces. There was no
    need to consume his strength in Italy and the
    Balkans, and the fact that he was induced to do
    so must be taken as the waste of his last
    opportunity.

21
The Invasion of Italy
  • In the confusion of the surrender, the allies
    managed to land on the toe and heel of Italy
    without much opposition
  • They started to fight their way North
  • Very difficult fighting- fast rivers, high
    mountains
  • Argument between Churchill and the Americans
    about how much force to focus on Italy
  • Churchill- Overlord (D-Day) isnt scheduled for
    5 months. Lets use our forces to push in Italy
  • Americans We cant do ANYTHING that will
    jeopardize Overlord
  • Central shortage- LSTs (landing craft, tanks)

22
A DARING RESCUE AT Gran Sasson!
  • Mussolini was rescued by Hitlers special forces
  • Glider, planes, no shots fired, etc.
  • Put in charge of the German held part of Italy
  • Why the quotes around in charge?

23
Not a Super Fun Time To Be Italian
  • Chaos
  • One day youre with Hitler, then with the allies,
    then with Hitler again
  • If you accidentally showed too much enthusiasm
    for one side, when the other side took over you
    got shot
  • Large groups of Italian soldiers were shot by
    angry German soldiers for surrendering

24
Anzio
  • To break stalemate south of Rome, amphibious
    invasion launched at Anzio
  • Surprise was achieved
  • The landing was virtually unopposed
  • Surprise was squandered
  • According to Churchill, his generals were too
    tentative in advancing inland and gave the
    Germans time to surround and contain (but not
    destroy) the landing group
  • I had thought we were unleashing a wildcat on
    the beaches at Anzio, but what we got instead was
    a beached whale

25
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26
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27
Rome and the rest of 1944
  • After months of stalemated battles, the allies
    broke through at both Anzio and Monte Cassino and
    took Rome
  • For the rest of 1944 (until winter made progress
    impractical), the allies inched northwards
  • After D-Day, Anvil/Dragoon, an attack from
    Italy into the southern French Riviera to support
    the D-Day invasion further weakened the allied
    effort in Italy
  • Churchill thought Dragoon was basically a waste

28
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29
In Spring, 1945, the final Axis defensive line in
Italy was pierced and the Germans surrendered in
Italy, 6 days before their general European
surrender
30
Mussolinis Death
  • During the final allied breakthrough, Mussolini
    and some followers tried to drive north in the
    hopes of finding a safe place to continue the
    resistance
  • They were taken prisoner by Italian partisans
  • The next day they were executed and driven to a
    central square in Milan
  • A crowd mangled their dead bodies and then they
    were hung up on meat hooks as a symbol of
    dishonor
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benito_MussoliniDeat
    h (American newsreel coverage of the death)

31
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32
Hansen Name ________________ WWII Tough
Old Gut
  • Part I. North Africa
  • Hitlers Victories (against France, but also in
    keeping Britain pinned down during the Battle of
    Britain and the Battle of the Atlantic) allowed
    ________ _________________________________________
    _____________________
  • Luftwaffe (and Italian air force)
    ___________________________________, and so for a
    good spell it was mostly closed to
    _______________________
  • Italians already held colonies in
    _____________________
  • Italian Advantages
  • _______ troops versus _________ British troops
  • Dont forget, the British were desperately
    guarding __________ ______________________________
    ______________________
  • Reading from Churchill (page 401)- 1940
    Englands greatest hour
  • Egypt/Suez Canal- ________________________________
    _____
  • British Torpedoed Italian Fleet at ___________
  • Gave the British naval superiority in the
    Mediterranean (if only they could win the air)
  • Inspired the _____________________________________
    ________
  • British Beat Back the Bad Battling Italians
  • I dont know much about how this happened
  • Hitler, worried about prestige, sent the
    ______________ and Rommel (the ___________________
    )
  • Gained fame during the ___________________________
    _________
  • Clip from Churchill (page 499-500) Unique aspects
    of desert warfare
  • The Afrikakorp Battered the British
  • Fortress at ____________________
  • After the Fall of Tobruk, Rommel Wants to Pierce
    __________________ _______________________ and
    the Middle East
  • British commander in North Africa is relieved and
    replaced by ____________________________________
  • Anecdote about Montgomerys pity for Rommel (page
    613 and 614 in Churchill)
  • Morale _____________ under Montgomery
  • Pause as Both Sides Prepare A ____________________
    _____________
  • Eventual Battle will be at _______________________
  • Problem for Rommel
  • ________________________________
  • Allies planted a _________________________________
    __ only one good route North of this depression
  • Then they ______________________ this route
  • Rommel ________________
  • His attack was beaten back _______________________
    ___
  • He also started to have __________________________
    __ as the allied air forces started to own the
    Mediterranean
  • Rommel himself was very _______ at this point
  • Allied Counterattack is Delayed to Wait for the
    perfect Moment
  • Clip on page 644 -645 of Churchill talking about
    the connection between luck and fate in world
    events
  • El Alamein
  • British built up a _______ numerical advantage in
    force
  • No opportunity for a fancy maneuver against the
    Germans they had a solid wall of resistance

33
  • Part II- Italy
  • Sicily
  • _________________________________________ before
    D-Day
  • Argument among allied commanders
  • A) We should stop with our complete victory in
    North Africa and wait until next year (1944) with
    all of our forces for a direct assault on France
  • B) We cannot let our army sit useless for a year
    Russia needs us. Attack Italy.
  • Allies bombarded lots of places before invading
    Sicily to ____________________
  • Example, Sardinia
  • Bad weather on the day of the attack, which might
    have been a nightmare, but probably
    __________________________________________________
    _______
  • _____________________ sent in to capture a key
    bridge on Sicily
  • Over a third of them got lost and landed in the
    water- much drowning
  • Of the 65 soldiers who got to the bridge (and
    held it until they were relieved over a day
    later), ___________________
  • Sicily has a great __________________ in the
    middle of it, so Axis could watch allied troop
    movements
  • Nonetheless, Axis quickly decided to retreat to
    Italy
  • ____________________________
  • The Fall of Mussolini
  • Rome was __________________ after Sicily fell
  • Hitler couldnt send _____________________________
    ____________________ __________________ (we are
    now post-Stalingrad)
  • High ranking Italians removed Mussolini
  • A Daring __________________ at Gran Sasso!
  • Mussolini was rescued by Hitlers special forces
  • _____________________________________________
  • Put ________________ of the German held part of
    Italy
  • Why the quotes around in charge?
  • Not a _____________________Time to Be Italian
  • Chaos
  • One day youre with Hitler, then with the allies,
    then with Hitler again
  • If you _________________________________________
    _______________, when the other side took over
    you got shot
  • Large groups of Italian soldiers were
    ____________________ _____________________________
    _______ for surrendering
  • Anzio
  • To break _________________________________________
    ________, amphibious invasion launched at Anzio
  • Surprise was achieved
  • The landing was virtually unopposed
  • Surprise was ___________________________
  • According to Churchill, his generals were too
    tentative in advancing inland and gave the
    Germans time to surround and contain (but not
    destroy) the landing group
  • I had thought we were unleashing a ___________
    on the beaches at Anzio, but what we got instead
    was a ___________
  • Rome and the Rest of 1944
  • After months of stalemated battles, the allies
    broke through at both Anzio and Monte Cassino and
    took Rome
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