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Lecture 5. Population synthesis of NSs


Lecture 5. Population synthesis of NSs Sergei Popov (SAI MSU) Population synthesis in astrophysics Why PS is necessary? Tasks Two variants Examples Magnetorotational ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lecture 5. Population synthesis of NSs

Lecture 5.Population synthesis of NSs
  • Sergei Popov (SAI MSU)

Population synthesis in astrophysics
A population synthesis is a method of a direct
modeling of relatively large populations of
weakly interacting objects with non-trivial
evolution. As a rule, the evolution of the
objects is followed from their birth up to the
present moment.
(see astro-ph/0411792)
Why PS is necessary?
  1. No direct experiments computer
  2. Long evolutionary time scales
  3. Selection effects. We see just a top of an
  4. Expensive projects for which it is necessary to
    make predictions

  • To test and/or to determine initial and
    evolutionary parameters.
  • To do it one has to compare calculated and
    observed popualtions.
  • This task is related to the main pecularity
    of astronomy we cannot make direct experiments
    under controlled conditions.
  • To predict properties of unobserved populations.
  • Population synthesis is actively use to
    define programms for futureobservational
    projects satellites, telescopes, etc.

Two variants
Evolutionary and Empirical
  • Evolutionary PS.The evolution is followed from
    some early stage.
  • Typically, an artificial population is
    formed(especially, in Monte Carlo simulations)
  • Empirical PS.
  • It is used, for example, to study integral
    properties(spetra) of unresolved populations.
  • A library of spectra is used to predict
    integral properties.

  • PS of radiopulsars
  • PS of gamma-ray pulsars
  • PS of close-by cooling NSs
  • PS of isolated NSs
  • PS of close binary systems

Magnetorotational evolution of radio pulsars
Spin-down. Rotational energy is released. The
exact mechanism is still unknown.
Population synthesis of radio pulsars
The idea was to make an advance population
synthesis study of normalradio pulsar to
reproduce the data observed in PMBPS and
Swinburne. Comparison between actual data and
calculations should help to understandbetter the
underlying parameteres and evolution laws. Only
normal (non-millisecond, non-binary, etc.)
pulsars are considered. Note, however, that the
role of pulsars originated in close binaries can
be important.
The observed PSR sample is heavily biased. It is
necessary to model the process of detection,i.e.
to model the same surveys in the synthetic
Galaxy. A synthetic PSR is detected if it
appears in thearea covered by on pf the survey,
and if itsradio flux exceeds some limit. 2/3 of
known PSRs were detected in PBMPSor/and SM (914
and 151).
  • Ingredients
  • Velocity distribution
  • Spatial distribution
  • Galactic model
  • Initial period distribution
  • Initial magnetic field distribution
  • Field evolution (and angle)
  • Radio luminosity
  • Dispersion measure model
  • Modeling of surveys

(following Faucher-Giguere and Kaspi
Velocity distribution
Observational data for 34 PSRs. Vmax1340 km/s
(PSR B201138).
The authors checked different velocity
distributions single maxwellian,double
maxwellian, loretzian, paczynski mode, and
double-side exponential.The last one was takes
for the reference model. Single maxwellian was
shown to be inadequate.
Spatial distribution
  • Initial spatial ditribution of PSRs was
    calculated in a complicated realistic way.
  • exponential dependences (R and Z) were taken
    into account
  • Spiral arms were taken into account
  • Decrease of PSR density close to the Galactic
    center was used

However, some details are still missing.For
example, the pattern is assumed tobe stable
during all time of calculations(i.e. corotating
with the Sun).
Galactic potential
  • The potential was taken from Kuijken and Gilmore
  • disc-halo
  • buldge
  • nuclei

Initial spin periods and fields
Spin periods were randomly taken from a normal
distribution. Magnetic fields also from a
normal distribution for log B. The authors do
not treat separately the magnetic field and
inclination angle evolution.
Purely magneto-dipole model with n3 and sin ?1
is used. RNS106 cm, I1045.
The death-line is taken in the usual form
Radio luminosity and beaming
Model I
Lto 2 mJy kpc2 a1-19/15 a2-2 Llow 0.1 mJy
Model II
Average beaming fraction is about 10
Optimal model and simulations
The code is run till the number of detected
synthetic PSR becomes equal tothe actual number
of detected PSRs in PBMPS and SM. For each
simulation the observed distributions of b,l,
DM, S1400, P, and B,are compared with the real
sample. It came out to be impossible to to apply
only statistical tests.Some human judgement is
necessary for interpretation.
Discussion of the results
  1. No significant field decay (or change in the
    inclination angle) is necessary toexplain the
  2. Results are not very sensitive to braking index
  3. Birthrate is 2.8/-0.1 per century.Between 13
    and 25 of core collapse SN produce PSRs.No
    necessity to assume a large population of radio
    quiet NSs.120 000 PSRs in the Galaxy

Population synthesis of gamma-ray PSRs
  1. Geometry of radio and gamma beam
  2. Period evolution
  3. Magnetic field evolution
  4. Initial spatial distribuion
  5. Initial velocity distribution
  6. Radio and gamma spectra
  7. Radio and gamma luminosity
  8. Properties of gamma detectors
  9. Radio surveys to comapre with.

  1. To test models
  2. To make predictions for GLAST and AGILE

(following Gonthier et al astro-ph/0312565)
1. Radio beam
2. Gamma beam.
Geometry of gamma-ray beam was adapted from the
slot gap model (Muslimov, Harding 2003)
Other properties
  • Pulsars are initially distributed in an
    exponential (in R and z) disc, following
    Paczynski (1990).
  • Birthrate is 1.38 per century
  • Velocity distribution from Arzoumanian, Chernoff
    and Cordes (2002).
  • Dispersion measure is calculated with the new
    model by Cordes and Lazio
  • Initial period distribution is taken to be flat
    from 0 to 150 ms.
  • Magnetic field decays with the time scale 2.8
    Myrs (note, that it can be mimiced by the
    evolution of the inclination angle between
    spin and magnetic axis).

The code is run till the number of detected
(artificially) pulsars is 10 timeslarger than
the number of really detected objects. Results
are compared with nine surveys (including PMBPS)
P-Pdot diagrams
Shaded detected, plain - simulated
Distributions on the sky
Crosses radio-quiet Dots radio-loud
Examples of pulse profiles
Predictions for GLAST and AGILE
Spatial distribution of gamma sources
Population of close-by young NSs
  • Magnificent seven
  • Geminga and 3EG J18535918
  • Four radio pulsars with thermal emission
    (B0833-45 B065614 B1055-52 B192910)
  • Seven older radio pulsars, without detected
    thermal emission.

To understand the origin of these populations and
predict future detectionsit is necessary to use
population synthesis.
Population synthesis ingredients
  • Birth rate of NSs
  • Initial spatial distribution
  • Spatial velocity (kick)
  • Mass spectrum
  • Thermal evolution
  • Interstellar absorption
  • Detector properties

To build an artificial model of a
population of some astrophysical sources and to
compare the results of calculations with
Population synthesis I.
Solar vicinity
  • Solar neighborhood is not a typical region of our
  • Gould Belt
  • R300-500 pc
  • Age 30-50 Myrs
  • 20-30 SN per Myr (Grenier 2000)
  • The Local Bubble
  • Up to six SN in a few Myrs

The Gould Belt
  • Poppel (1997)
  • R300 500 pc
  • Age 30-50 Myrs
  • Center at 150 pc from the Sun
  • Inclined respect to the galactic plane at 20
  • 2/3 massive stars in 600 pc belong to the Belt

Mass spectrum of compact objects
Results of numerical modeling
(Timmes et al. 1996, astro-ph/9510136)
Comparison with observations
(Timmes et al. 1996, astro-ph/9510136)
Mass spectrum of NSs
  • Mass spectrum of local young NSs can be different
    from the general one (in the Galaxy)
  • Hipparcos data on near-by massive stars
  • Progenitor vs NS mass
  • Timmes et al. (1996)
  • Woosley et al. (2002)

Progenitor mass vs. NS mass
Woosley et al. 2002
Log N Log S
Log of the number of sources brighter than the
given flux
Log of flux (or number counts)
Cooling of NSs
  • Direct URCA
  • Modified URCA
  • Neutrino bremstrahlung
  • Superfluidity
  • Exotic matter (pions, quarks, hyperons, etc.)

(see a recent review in astro-ph/0508056)
In our study for illustrative purposes we use a
set of cooling curves calculated by Blaschke,
Grigorian and Voskresenski (2004) in the frame of
the Nuclear medium cooling model
Some results of PS-ILog N Log S and spatial
Log N Log S for close-by ROSAT NSs can be
explained by standard cooling curves taking into
account the Gould Belt. Log N Log S can be
used as an additional test of cooling curves
More than ½ are in /- 12 degrees from the
galactic plane. 19 outside /- 30o 12 outside
/- 40o
(Popov et al. 2005 ApSS 299, 117)
Population synthesis II.recent improvements
1. Spatial distribution of progenitor stars
We use the same normalization for NS formation
rate inside 3 kpc 270 per Myr. Most of NSs are
born inOB associations. For stars lt500 pc we
eventry to take into accountif they belong to
OB assoc.with known age.
a) Hipparcos stars up to 500 pc Age spectral
type cluster age (OB ass) b) 49 OB
associations birth rate Nstar c) Field stars
in the disc up to 3 kpc
Effects of the new spatial distribution on Log N
Log S
There are no significanteffects on the Log N
Log Sdistribution due to moreclumpy initial
distributionof NSs. But, as well see
below,the effect is strong forsky distribution.
Solid new initial XYZ Dashed Rbelt 500
pc Dotted Rbelt 300 pc
Population synthesis II.recent improvements
3. Spatial distribution of ISM (NH)
instead of
NH inside 1 kpc
(see astro-ph/0609275 for details)

Modification of the old one
First results new maps
Clearly several rich OB associations start to
dominate in the spatial distribution

50 000 tracks, new ISM model
Predictions for future searches
Magn. 7
Standard test temperature vs. age
Kaminker et al. (2001)
Log N Log S as an additional test
  • Standard test Age Temperature
  • Sensitive to ages lt105 years
  • Uncertain age and temperature
  • Non-uniform sample
  • Log N Log S
  • Sensitive to ages gt105 years
  • (when applied to close-by NSs)
  • Definite N (number) and S (flux)
  • Uniform sample
  • Two test are perfect together!!!

List of models (Blaschke et al. 2004)
Pions Crust Gaps
  • Blaschke et al. used 16 sets of cooling curves.
  • They were different in three main respects
  • Absence or presence of pion condensate
  • Different gaps for superfluid protons and
  • Different Ts-Tin
  • Model I. Yes C A
  • Model II. No D B
  • Model III. Yes C B
  • Model IV. No C B
  • Model V. Yes D B
  • Model VI. No E B
  • Model VII. Yes C B
  • Model VIII.Yes C B
  • Model IX. No C A

Model I
  • Pions.
  • Gaps from Takatsuka Tamagaki (2004)
  • Ts-Tin from Blaschke, Grigorian, Voskresenky

Can reproduce observed Log N Log S
Model II
  • No Pions
  • Gaps from Yakovlev et al. (2004), 3P2 neutron gap
    suppressed by 0.1
  • Ts-Tin from Tsuruta (1979)

Cannot reproduce observed Log N Log S
Sensitivity of Log N Log S
  • Log N Log S is very sensitive to gaps
  • Log N Log S is not sensitive to the crust if it
    is applied to relatively old objects (gt104-5 yrs)
  • Log N Log S is not very sensitive to presence
    or absence of pions

We conclude that the two test complement each
Mass constraint
  • Mass spectrum has to be taken
  • into account when discussing
  • data on cooling
  • Rare masses should not be used
  • to explain the cooling data
  • Most of data points on T-t plot
  • should be explained by masses
  • lt1.4 Msun
  • In particular
  • Vela and Geminga should not be
  • very massive

Cooling curves from Kaminker et al.
Phys. Rev .C (2006) nucl-th/0512098 (published as
a JINR preprint)
Another attempt to test a set of models. Hybrid
stars. Astronomy meets QCD
We studied several models for hybrid stars
applying all possible tests - T-t - Log N
Log S - Brightness constraint - Mass constraint
We also tried to present examples when a model
successfully passes the Log N Log S test, but
fails to pass the standard T-t test or fails
to fulfill the mass constraint.
Results for HySs application
One model among four was able to pass all tests.
Isolated neutron star census
  • Task.
  • To calculate distribution of isolated NSs in the
    Galaxy over evolutionary stages
  • Ejector, Propeller, Accretor, Georotator
  • Ingredients.
  • Galactic potential
  • Initial NS spatial distribution
  • Kick velocity
  • ISM distribution
  • Spin evolution and critical periods
  • Magnetic field distribution and evolution

Rather conservative evolutionary scheme was used.
For example, subsonic propellers have not been
considered (Ikhsanov 2006).
Accreting isolated NSs
At small fluxes lt10-13 erg/s/cm2 accretors can
become more abundant than coolers. Accretors are
expected to be slightly harder 300-500 eV vs.
50-100 eV. Good targets for eROSITA!
From several hundreds up to several thousands
objects at fluxes about few X 10-14, but
difficult to identify. Monitoring is important.
Also isolated accretors can be found in the
Galactic center (Zane et al. 1996, Deegan,
Nayakshin 2006).
  • Population synthesis is a useful tool in
  • Many theoretical parameters can be tested only
    via such modeling
  • Many parameters can be determined only via PS
  • Actively used to study NSs

Dorothea Rockburne
Evolution of close binaries
(Scenario Machine calculations)
Scenario machine
  • There are several groupsin the world which
    studyevolution of close binariesusing
    population synthesis approach.
  • Examples of topics
  • Estimates of the rate of coalescence of NSs
    and BHs
  • X-ray luminosities of galaxies
  • Calculation of mass spectra of NSs in
  • Calculations of SN rates
  • Calculations of the rate of short GRBs

(Lipunov et al.)
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