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Title: Sensation%20and%20Perception%206-8%%20of%20AP%20Exam


1
Sensation and Perception 6-8 of AP Exam
  • Chapters 4 5

2
Pioneers in S P
  • Ernst Weber Noted for defining
  • difference threshold (JND) aka Webers Law the
    smallest difference between stimuli that we can
    detect
  • Fechner Studied brightness, light and
    afterimages by looking directly at the sun (Bad
    Idea!)
  • Used Webers law to study relationship between
    physical magnitude of a stimulus its perceived
    magnitude
  • Ernst Weber 1795-1878
  • Gustav Fechner 1801-1887

3
Optical Illusions
4
A closer look at the Vision
  • http//education-portal.com/academy/lesson/how-doe
    s-vision-work.htmllesson

Blue Man Group Rods Cones http//www.youtube.
com/watch?vW-yLfm5HsHc
5
Contrast Effects
  • Hermann Grid
  • In addition to the pattern of black boxes, we see
    black dots in the intersections of the white
    lines.
  • This phenomenon is called a contrast effect
  • due to the way in which light contrasts are
    interpreted by our eyes

6
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7
Geometric Illusions
http//opticaleffect.tripod.com/hering_illusion1.h
tm
The concentric squares are, in fact, parallel,
but the diagonal lines in the background make
them appear slanted and crooked.  This illusion
also exhibits some aspects of contrast effects,
as the boxes around the edge seem to pop out.
The red/pink lines are parallel in the image
above.  However, they appear to bend or bulge
outward due to the rays extending from the
center.  This is known as the standard Herring
illusion (dating to 1861).
8
Which line is longer?
In the Muller-Lyer illusion, both horizontal
lines are the same length but the orientation of
the "arrows" makes the bottom one seem longer
than the top one.
9
in the Judd illusion the orientation of the
"arrow" on each end causes the midpoint (as
marked) to appear off-center. 
10
The first (left) one appears to bulge out and the
second (right) one seems to ripple like a flag or
waves, when in fact both are normal
checkerboards.
11
  In the images above there are three partial
shapes (either circles or squares).  They are
oriented, however, such that their cut out
portions appear to frame another shape (either a
square or a triangle). 
12
Illusions of Structure and Form
We immediately recognize this as an elephant and
at first see nothing wrong with it...only to
realize that something indeed is quite wrong! 
The Gestalt laws of "good form" come to bear
here we know an elephant and recognize it
pre-consciously without analyzing the image of
it.
13
Look at the cube below and pay particular
attention to the brown cell in the middle of each
side. How do they compare? Do they all look like
the same shade of brown??
14
Now look at the "masked" version of the same
image below, in which the neighboring cells are
darkened and ignored by the visual system.
Notice the brown cells are the same color.
15
Here is another similar example in which the
dotted central tile is actually the same color
As with the cube, this is because the neighboring
colored tile influence our perception of the
color of the center tile it is seen as "bluer
and lighter" next to reds and brown and is seen
as "browner" next to "greener" greens and more
blue (right).   In other words, the nearby tiles
weight the ratio of cone responses and therefore
different colors are perceived! 
16
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20
If you take a look at the following  picture , it
looks animatedits not!  Your eyes are making it
move.  To test this, stare at one spot for a
couple seconds and everything will stop moving. 
Or look at the black center of each circle and it
will stop moving.  But move your eyes to the next
black center and the previous will move after you
take your eyes away from it....   
21
Which circle in the middle is bigger?
22
You should see a man's face and also a
word... Hint Try tilting your head to the right,
the world begins with 'L'
23
Color Deficiencies
  • See photos on page 132 of book
  • Previously called color blindness Cones contain
    only 2 of the 3 possible color sensitive pigments

24
Audition
http//education-portal.com/academy/lesson/mechani
cs-of-hearing.htmllesson
  • Audition
  • the sense of hearing
  • Frequency
  • the number of complete wavelengths that pass a
    point in a given time
  • Pitch
  • a tones highness or lowness
  • depends on frequency

25
Backmasking
  • http//jeffmilner.com/backmasking/
  • Mental set predisposition to perceive something
  • Listen w/o subtitles
  • Listen with subtitles perceptual set
  • brain is focused on relating the sounds with the
    words
  • Brain expects the words to match the sounds

26
The Intensity of Some Common Sounds
27
Audition
  • Deafness- May be caused by tumors, skull injury,
    poison, birth trauma, rubella
  • Conduction Hearing Loss
  • hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical
    system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
  • Nerve Hearing Loss
  • hearing loss caused by damage to the cochleas
    receptor cells or to the auditory nerve

28
The Chemical Senses Taste and Smell
http//education-portal.com/academy/lesson/taste-t
ouch-and-smell.htmllesson
  • Olfaction detects airborne chemicals
  • Gustation detects chemicals through receptors
    in mouth

29
Gustation
  • Taste cells are chemical sensitive receptors
    located in taste bud clusters
  • Taste buds are located on the bumps on your tongue

30
Basic qualities of taste
  • Sweet
  • Sour
  • Salty
  • Bitter
  • Umami
  • Other influences may be smell, temperature or
    touch/texture
  • Sensory Interaction
  • the principle that one sense may influence
    another
  • as when the smell of food influences its taste

31
Olfaction
  • Receptors for smell are located on the olfactory
    patch which is a thin membrane in the upper nasal
    cavity
  • Olfactory cells are stimulated by gases dissolved
    in the fluid covering the membrane
  • For stimulus to be smelled, it must be dissolved

32
Skin Senses
  • Bodys largest sense receptor system
  • Receptors for this system are located throughout
    the body

33
Gate Control Theory (Melzak)
  • Sensation of pain requires not only that pain
    information from skin receptors be active, but
    also the neural gate in the spinal cord to allow
    these signals to pass to the brain (the gate is
    closed when critical fibers in the spinal cord
    are activated)
  • Pressure stimulation tends to close the neural
    gate (activate the critical fibers) which is why
    rubbing a hurt area may relieve pain temporarily.

34
Kinesthesis
  • Communicates information about movement and
    location of body parts
  • Receptors found in joints, muscles and ligaments

35
Vestibular Sense
  • Equilibratory sense
  • Knowledge of body position as in sense of balance
  • Receptors in semicircle canals (rotating
    movement) and vestibular sacs (straight line
    movement) in inner ear

36
Senses
  • Optical Illusions TED talk
  • https//www.ted.com/talks/beau_lotto_optical_illus
    ions_show_how_we_see
  • Synesthesia TED talk
  • http//ed.ted.com/lessons/what-color-is-tuesday-ex
    ploring-synesthesia-richard-e-cytowic
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