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Going with the Trends: PERIODIC TRENDS

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Going with the Trends: PERIODIC TRENDS Concept Presentation Andrew Selvam HS Chemistry OISE/UT Instructors: Janine Extavour/Marty Zatzman Periodic Trends War This ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Going with the Trends: PERIODIC TRENDS


1
Going with the TrendsPERIODIC TRENDS
  • Concept PresentationAndrew Selvam HS Chemistry
    OISE/UTInstructors Janine Extavour/Marty
    Zatzman

2
(No Transcript)
3
Outline of Presentation
  • Curriculum Expectations
  • What do I need to know before?
  • Where does the concept fit?
  • Roadblocks and Misconceptions for Teachers and
    Students
  • (incl. Solutions and Activities)
  • Lesson Sequence (incl. Accommodations and AE)
  • Applications to Real World
  • Period Trends War Game
  • References

4
Curriculum Expectations(Ontario Ministry of
Education)
SPECIFIC EXPECTATIONS
A1.5 Conduct inquiries, controlling relevant variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using appropriate materials and equipment safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observation and data.
A1.6 Compile accurate data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using appropriate formats, including tables, charts, graphs, and/or diagrams
A1.10 Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions with reference to scientific knowledge.
5
Curriculum Expectations(Ontario Ministry of
Education)
B1.1 Analyse, on the basis of research, the properties of a commonly used but potentially harmful chemical substance and how that substance affects the environment, and propose ways to lessen the harmfulness of the substance or identify alternative substances that could be used for the same purpose.
B2.1 Use appropriate terminology related to chemical trends and chemical bonding, including, but not limited to atomic radius, effective nuclear charge, electronegativity, ionization energy, and electron affinity.
B2.2 Analyze data related to the properties of elements within a period (e.g., ionization energy, atomic radius) to identify general trends in the periodic table
6
Review Items
  • Grade 9 and 10 Science
  • The Atom
  • Composition of the Atom
  • Subatomic Particle
  • Formation of Ions
  • Periodic Table
  • Elements
  • Features Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
  • Periods (Rows) and Groups (Columns)
  • of elements with similar properties

F
F ? F1-
7
The Unit
  • Periodic Trends is part of the first unit of SCH
    3U
  • Integral for students to understand the
    molecular/atomic basis for the formation of
    compounds and the reaction of those compounds
    (later in the unit)

Chapter 4 Classifying Reactions Chemicals in
Balance
Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds and Bonding
Chapter 2 Elements and the Periodic Table
Chapter 1 Observing Matter
8
Placement of Concept in the Chapter
  • The placement of the concept of the unit fits
    appropriately in the context of the chapter
  • Both McGraw-Hill and Nelson texts place the
    concept in the following way

Atoms, Elements and the Periodic Table
Periodic Trends (Involving the Sizes and Energy
Levels of Atoms)
Classifying Chemical Compounds (Ionic vs.
Covalent)
Why do you think this is?
9
The Concept
Atomic Radius
Ionization Energy
Effective Nuclear Charge
PERIODIC TRENDS
Electron Affinity
Shielding Effect
Electronegativity
Reactivity
10
The Trends in Picture
11
Major Roadblocks for Teachers
  • Teachers have a two-fold problem when it comes to
    teaching periodic trends
  • Explaining (as opposed to simply memorizing) the
    subatomic basis for all five trends
  • Atomic Radius (Ionic Radius)
  • Ionization Energy
  • Electron Affinity
  • Electronegativity
  • Reactivity of Metals and Non-Metals
  • Looking for ways to help students retain
  • and review the knowledge of Periodic
    Trends

12
Misconceptions for Students
  • ROADBLOCK 1
  • Visualizing attractive and repulsive forces
    between nucleus and electrons
  • ROADBLOCK 2
  • Understanding that the nucleus can have an
    effective nuclear charge and that inner-level
    electrons can shield the nucleus from outer-level
    electrons

13
Ryan Seacrest shows Effective Nuclear Charge with
his smile!
14
The Solution to Misconceptions 1 and 2The
Analogy with Atomic Radius
  • Ryan Seacrest Nucleus
  • Mouthwash Effective Nuclear Charge
  • Ladies Electrons

15
Using Desks in Your Classroom
Teachers Desk Nucleus
Electron
16
ROADBLOCK 3 Each periodic trend is really its
own separate concept. None of them are
interconnected.
17
Visual Across a Period
H
Li
Be
Na
Mg
Mg
12P 12N
18
  • ATOMIC RADIUS
  • Adding one proton increases the charge of the
    nucleus to pull the electrons towards them,
    therefore across a period, the atomic size
    decreases
  • IONIZATION ENERGY
  • It requires more energy to pull electrons that
    have been tightly held by the nucleus, therefore
    across a period, the ionization energy increases
  • ELECTRON AFFINITY/ ELECTRONEGATIVITY
  • Because the electrons are being tightly held by
    the nucleus, therefore across a period, electron
    affinity and electronegativity increases.

19
Visual Down a Group
H
Li
Be
Mg
Na
20
  • ATOMIC RADIUS
  • Going down a period, there are additional energy
    levels to add to the size of the atom, thus the
    atomic radius increases
  • IONIZATION ENERGY
  • It requires less energy to pull electrons that
    are not tightly held by the nucleus, therefore
    down a group, the ionization energy decreases
  • ELECTRON AFFINITY/ ELECTRONEGATIVITY
  • The electrons are not being as tightly
  • held by the nucleus, therefore across a period,
    electron affinity and electronegativity decreases.

21
  • Each of you will receive two magnets
  • Here are your instructions
  • Take a few minutes in pairs or in table groups to
    come up with a way to use the magnets to explain
    a periodic trend

Now here is how you can use magnets to show some
of the periodic trends...
22
Using Magnets for Ionization Energy
  • Take two magnets. The first magnet is the
    nucleus and the second magnet are the electrons
    in the outer shell.
  • When the magnets are close together
  • hard to pull them away from each other requires
    more energy
  • When the magnets are already far apart,
  • it is easy to pull them further away, because of
    a weak force of attraction

23
Lesson Day 1
  • Focus Review of Atomic Composition and Atomic
    Structure
  • Activities - Chalk and Talk on
    Composition/Structure
  • - Demo 1 Atomic Emission Spectra
  • (Use Diffraction Gratings and Spectroscopes)
  • - Demo 2 Metal Reactivity (With Alkali
    Metals)
  • - Will Refer Back to Later in the Lesson
    Sequence
  • Accomodations For IEP/ELL students, provide them
    with tables that give them an idea of how the
    number of valence electrons relate to groups on
    the periodic table
  • Assessment/Evaluation Assessment for Grade 9
    Review Items
  • Formative Assessment Metal Reactivity
    Demo
  • Homework Effective Nuclear Charge

24
Demo Observing the Spectra of Elements
H2
D2
N2
O2
Hg
He
Ne
Ar
Kr
Xe
25
Demo Metal Reactivity
Li
Na
K
Metal Reactivity increases as you move down the
group.
26
Safety Precautions for Demo
  • Lab not recommended for students as it can be
    quite violent
  • Metals like lithium, potassium, and sodium react
    violently with air and so are kept in a special
    mineral oil
  • If you have a shield, put this up to prevent
    injury or ask students to move back

27
Lesson Day 2
  • Focus Introduction to Periodic Trends
  • Activities - PowerPoint on Periodic Trends
    including Analogies
  • - VAK Activities
  • - Magnet Analogy (Visual)
  • - Classroom Kinesthetic Activity
  • - Trends Exercise (Aural)
  • (Students can pair together to try activities)
  • - Discussion on Applications to the Real World
  • Assessment/Evaluation Diagnostic Questioning
    Previous Day Learning
  • Formative Assessment Worksheet/Text
    Ques.
  • Formative Assessment Exit Pass
  • Multiple Intelligences Visual, Logical, Tactile,
    Interpersonal, Intrapersonal

28
Lesson Day 3
  • Focus Reinforcement of Periodic Trends
  • Activities - Periodic Trends War Game (We will
    do this at the end!)
  • - Graphical Analysis of Periodic Trends
  • - Atomic Radius vs. Atomic Number
  • - Ionization Energy vs. Atomic Number
  • Assessment/Evaluation Formative Assessment
  • - Taking in Game Sheet for Periodic Trends War
  • - Taking in Graphs to get proof of student
    understanding
  • - Teacher will go around to help students
    one-on-one with activity
  • Multiple Intelligences Visual, Logical,
    Intrapersonal, Interpersonal

29
(No Transcript)
30
Graphic Resource for Periodic Trends lthttp//www.t
eachersdomain.org/resource/lsps07.sci.phys.matter.
graphperiodic/gt
31
Assessment EvaluationKICA
Knowledge Questions that ask to find the element with the greatest or least atomic radius, ionization energy
Inquiry Questions that ask students to explain the atomic basis for periodic trends
Communication Graphical analysis of periodic trends
Application Discussion on uses of elements based on their place in the Periodic Table
32
Applications to the Real World
  • Medical (Surgical)
  • Because of the low reactivity of Tantalum (Ta)
    bottom-left of the PT, used in surgical
    sutures, pins, and implants
  • Cooking
  • Because fluorine is so reactive it reacts with
    another substance, and becomes very stable.
    Teflon used in pans is a combination of carbon
    and fluorine.

33
More Applications...
  • Industrial
  • Tantalum oxide is used in camera lenses
  • Cesium (Cs) has a low ionization energy and is
    very reactive
  • It is used in TV cameras and traffic signals
  • Chlorine and bromine are used for sterilization
    (high reactivity)

34
Periodic Trends War
  • This is an adaptation of the card game war,
    except instead of using playing cards, we will
    use index cards with an element on it
  • We will also use dice, where each face represents
    one of the trends
  • 1 Atomic Radius/Ionic Radius
  • 2 Ionization Energy
  • 3 Electron Affinity
  • 4 Electronegativity
  • 5 Reactivity
  • 6 Wild Any of the trends above

35
Periodic Trend War Contd
  • Instructions
  • Students get into groups of 3 or 4. Assign
    someone to be the dealer.
  • The dealer will roll the die. Each student in
    the group will reveal the element card from the
    top of their pile
  • It is now up to them to determine who wins the
    deal based on who has the greatest value based on
    the trend
  • The person who wins becomes the dealer

36
Activity Assessment and Evaluation
  • Each student will get a game card
  • The student will document the name of the trend,
    the choices they had and the atom with the
    greatest value
  • At the end of class, students will hand the game
    card in as a formative assessment
  • The teacher now has a better understanding of
    whether the student knows the trend
  • Potential Advantage Peer Collaboration
  • Potential Disadvantage Peer Plagarizing

37
Text References
  • McGraw-Hill Chemistry 11
  • Student Text and Teachers Resource
  • Addison-Wesley Chemistry 11
  • Teachers Resource
  • Provides Suggestions for
  • Common Student Misconceptions
  • Lesson Ideas for all Learning Styles
  • Accommodations for Identified / ELL Learners
  • Assessment and Evaluation
  • Possible Lab Investigations

38
Journal Articles
  • Montogomery, M. (2005). Periodic Table Trends.
    The Science Teacher, 72(4), 50-51.
  • This resource comes from a science teacher at a
    local highschool in Southaven, Mississippi. The
    author attempts to provide examples of how to
    demonstrate the trends of atomic radius, ionic
    radius, and ionization energy by reorganizing the
    desks in a classroom. He also tackles concepts
    such as the shielding effect.
  • Also goes into great explanations for ionic radii
    as well

39
Websites
  • Website Howe, M., Krone, B., Reiter, S., and D.
    Verby.
  • Chemistry as Fun and Games.
  • lthttp//nobel.scas.bcit.ca/chemed2005/tradingPost/
    TUPM_S2_4_15ChemFunGames.pdf.gt
  • Good resource for games that apply to concepts
    learned in Grade 11 and 12 Chemistry
  • YouTube Videos Periodic Trends Song
  • lthttp//www.youtube.com/watch?vMGTKVaZcq8Ygt
  • Cheesy song for students who might enjoy learning
    in the musical genres of hip-hop and rap

40
Don't forget me! Thanks for listening to my
presentation! And thanks to Cora for all her
support!
If you ever thought periodic trends could not be
cool, wait until you listen to this cheesy music
video...
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