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Managing Weight and Body Composition


Chapter 6 Managing Weight and Body Composition – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Weight and Body Composition

Chapter 6
  • Managing Weight and Body Composition

Lesson 1
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight

The Weight-Calorie Connection
  • Body Image the way you see your body
  • Affected by several factors???
  • Calories units used to measure energy, both in
    food and the energy your body uses
  • Energy Balance the calories you consume must
    equal the calories your body burns

The Weight-Calorie Connection
  • Calories Their Source
  • Some foods have more calories than others
  • Carbohydrates, proteins and fats as well as
    portion size adds up calories
  • Carbohydrates and proteins supply four calories
    per gram, whereas fats supply more than twice
    that with nine calories per gram.
  • The Energy Equation
  • If you take in fewer calories than you burn you
    will lose weight
  • If you take in more calories than you burn, you
    gain weight
  • Adding just 100 extra calories to your daily food
    intake without changing your activity level will
    add 10 pounds to your weight in one year

Determining Your Appropriate Weight Range
  • Your appropriate weight is influenced by several
    factors gender, age, height, body frame, growth
    rate, metabolic rate and activity level
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) ratio that allows you to
    asses your body size in relation to your height
    and weight
  • BMI weight (in pounds) x 703/height (in
  • Figure 6.1 pg. 146

Body Composition
  • Body Composition the ratio of body fat to lean
    body tissue
  • Body Weight vs. Body Fat
  • Overweight a condition in which a person is
    heavier than the standard weight range for her
  • Obesity refers specifically to having excess
    amount of body fat

Weight-Related Health Risks
  • Overweight A Health Risk
  • Excess body fat strains the muscles and the
    skeletal system
  • It forces the heart and lungs to work harder and
    increases the risk of high blood pressure and
    high blood cholesterol
  • Increase the risk of type 2 diabetes
  • Overweight and obesity is the cause of consuming
    excess calories and from physical inactivity,
    genetics can play a role
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans ABC

Weight-Related Health Risks, cont.
  • Underweight A Health Risk
  • A condition in which a person is less than the
    standard weight range for her height
  • Cause of genetics or fast metabolism
  • Some people diet or exercise excessively to stay
  • A person who is too thin has little stored fat to
    provide the body with an energy reserve and may
    not be consuming enough calories and nutrients
    for health and growth

Healthful Ways to Manage Weight
  • Formal Weight Management Plan
  • Target your appropriate weight
  • Set realistic goals
  • Personalize your plan
  • Put your goal and plan in writing
  • Evaluate your progress

Healthy Weight Loss/Gain Strategies
  • Loss
  • Eat 1,700 to 1,800 calories daily to meet your
    bodys energy needs
  • Include your favorites in moderation
  • Eat a variety of low-calorie, nutrient dense
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Gain
  • Increase your caloric intake
  • Eat often and take second helpings
  • Eat nutritious snacks
  • Build muscle

Physical Activity and Weight Management
  • Whether you want to lose, gain or maintain
    weight, regular physical activity should be part
    of your plan
  • Aerobic exercise burns calories and helps lose
  • Weight lifting, resistance training will increase
    muscle mass and produce firm, lean body shape
  • Added benefits to regular physical activity
  • Helps relieve stress, promotes a normal appetite
    response, increases self-esteem

Lesson 2
  • Fad Diets and Eating Disorders

Risky Weight-Loss Strategies
  • Fad Diets
  • Weight-loss plans that are popular for only a
    short time
  • Usually hard to stick with because they limit
    food variety
  • Severely restrict the foods a dieter eats
    therefore they fail to provide the body with the
    nutrients it needs for health and growth
  • Any weight lost on fad diets is usually regained
  • Examples???

Liquid Diets
  • A person on a liquid diet replaces all of his or
    her food intake with a special liquid formula
  • Very low calorie diets and do not meet the bodys
    energy needs, often feel fatigued
  • Do not provide the body with fiber and needed
    nutrients, rely on high-protein and low-carb
    liquids as the only source of nutrients and can
    cause serious health problems and even death
  • US Food and Drug Administration require these
    products to carry warning labels and recommends
    that they be used only under close medical

  • To fast is to abstain from eating
  • Might seem like a quick way to lose weight but
    fasting for more than short periods deprives your
    body of needed nutrients and energy
  • Without a fresh supply of nutrients each day your
    body starts to break down the proteins in your
    muscle tissue for energy
  • Some religions and cultural rituals involve brief
    periods of fasting it is not dangerous for the
    average person might not be good for diabetics
    or other health conditions

Diet Pills
  • Many diet pills work by suppressing appetite
  • May cause drowsiness, anxiety, a racing heart, or
    other serious side affects
  • May be addictive
  • Some cause the body to lose more water than
    normal, leading to dehydration
  • Diet pills claim to burn, block, or flush
    fat from the body, but a low-risk pill that meets
    these claims has not yet been developed

Weight Cycling
  • The repeated pattern of loss and regain of body
  • Is common in people who follow fad diets
  • Fad diets or products may seem to help people
    lose weight quickly, but weight loss is usually
    from water, not body fat
  • Water weight lost is quickly regained
  • Slow and steady weight loss is the best strategy
    for long-lasting results

The Risk of Eating Disorders
  • Effort to lose weight can get out of control
  • Becoming obsessed with thinness can lead to
    eating disorders
  • Eating disorders an extreme, harmful eating
    behavior that can cause serious illness or even
  • Exact cause is unknown, might be brought on by
    mental or emotional factors such as poor body
    image, social and family pressures and
  • 90 percent of those with eating disorders are
    females, estimated one percent of females ages
    16-18 have this illness
  • People who suffer from this need professional help

Anorexia Nervosa
  • Disorder in which the irrational fear of becoming
    obese results in sever weight loss from
    self-imposed starvation
  • Psychological disorder with emotional and
    physical consequences
  • It relates to a persons self-concept and coping
  • Outside pressures, need to feel accepted, high
    expectations and a need to achieve are
    characteristics of anorexia
  • Genetics and other biological factors may play a
    role in the development of this disorder
  • Symptoms include extremely low caloric intake,
    an obsession with exercising, emotional problems,
    unnatural interest in food, distorted body image,
    denial of an eating problem

Health Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa
  • Physical
  • malnutrition and starvation, drastic reduction of
    body fat may cause females to stop menstruating
  • Loss of bone density, low body temperature, low
    blood pressure, slowed metabolism, reduction in
    organ size
  • Irregular heart beat that can lead to cardiac
    arrest and sudden death
  • Treatment clinic or hospital to regain weight
    and strength by nutrients, as well as
    psychological treatment

Bulimia Nervosa
  • Disorder in which some form of purging or
    clearing of the digestive tract following cycles
    of overeating
  • Person usually fasts or follows a strict diet and
    then binges, or quickly consumes large amounts of
  • After eating, the person may vomit or take
    laxatives to purge the food from the body
  • After the purge the person will try to diet again
    to gain a sense of control and avoid putting on
  • Most likely the cause is societal pressure,
    self-esteem issues, and family problems

Health Consequences of Bulimia Nervosa
  • Repeated binging, purging, and fasting can cause
    serious health problems and even death
  • Frequent vomiting and diarrhea can lead to
    dehydration, kidney damage and irregular heart
  • Vomiting can destroy teeth enamel, causes tooth
    decay, damages the tissues of the stomach,
    esophagus and mouth
  • Frequent use of laxatives disrupts digestion and
    absorption and may cause nutrient deficiencies,
    change the composition of the blood
  • Treatment medical and psychological counseling

Binge Eating Disorder
  • Disorder characterized by compulsive overeating,
    consume large amounts of food at one time but do
    not try to purge
  • This disorder may signal the use of food as a
    coping mechanism for strong emotions or
  • Treatment professional psychological counseling
    and sometimes medication
  • Health Consequences unhealthful weight gain,
    which contributes to type 2 diabetes, heart
    disease and stroke, gall bladder problems, high
    blood pressure, high cholesterol, and increased
    risk of certain types of cancer

Help For Eating Disorders
  • People with eating disorders need professional
    medical and psychological help
  • Benefit from support groups and clinics
  • If you believe a friend might be developing an
    eating disorder, discuss it with a trusted adult,
    such as a parent, counselor or school nurse

Lesson 3
  • Nutrition for Individual Needs

Performance Nutrition
  • The Training Diet
  • Balanced, moderate, varied
  • Physical activity burns more calories active
    individuals have to eat more calories to maintain
    energy and weight
  • Hydration
  • Body loses fluids through perspiration, breathing
    and waste elimination
  • Fluids must be replaced to avoid dehydration and
  • Being dehydrated can lead to and imbalance of
    electrolytes-minerals that help maintain the
    bodys fluid balance
  • The minerals sodium, chloride and potassium are
    all electrolytes
  • Rehydration restoring lost body fluids hydrate
    before, during and after heavy workouts

  • Vegetarian is a person who eats mostly or only
    plant foods
  • Some people do it for cultural or religious
    reasons, concern for the environment or how food
    animals are raised or slaughtered, or for health
  • Figure 6.3 Vegetarian Eating Plans
  • Lacto-ovo
  • Lacto
  • Ovo
  • Vegan

Vegetarians Meeting Nutrient Needs
  • Vegetarians need to eat a variety of incomplete
    proteins in a way that will yield complete
    proteins over the course of a day
  • Make sure to get enough iron, zinc and vitamin B
    (nutrients often found in animal products)
  • Key eat nutrient-dense foods, include fruits and
    vegetables, leafy greens, whole-grains, nuts,
    seeds, legumes, dairy foods or eggs
  • Vegans vegetarians who eat only plant foods
  • Must obtain vitamin D, Vitamin B-12 and Calcium

Dietary Supplements
  • Non-food form of one or more nutrients
  • May contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein,
    or herbs
  • Can be pill, capsule, powder or liquid form
  • Eating healthful meals and snacks according to
    the Food Guide Pyramid can provide you with all
    the nutrients your body needs, however taking a
    multivitamin or supplement may be appropriate

Risks of Dietary Supplements
  • Megadose very large amount of dietary
    supplement, may be dangerous
  • Example Vitamin A, D, E and K are stored in body
    fat and may cause toxicity if taken in large
  • Herbal Supplement chemical substance from plants
    that may be sold as a dietary supplement
  • Often are sold as natural nutrition aids,
    however the safety and nutritional claims of many
    of these products are not based on conclusive
    scientific evidence

Nutrition Throughout the Life Span
  • People have different nutritional needs at
    different stages of life
  • Many children and most teens need more calories a
    day than less active adults
  • While the nutritional needs of these groups vary
    slightly, most people can get all the calories
    and nutrients they need each day by following the
    recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines and
    the Food Guide Pyramid

Nutrition During Pregnancy
  • Developing fetus depends on its mother for all
    its needs, important for pregnant females to eat
    healthfully and to avoid harmful substances such
    as tobacco, alcohol and other drugs
  • Pregnant females are encouraged to increase their
    intake of folate, iron and calcium
  • Folate folic acid, prevent spinal defects,
    sources are vitamin B fruits, dark green leafy
    veggies, fortified grain products
  • Iron increase blood volume, helps build and
    renew hemoglobin, sources are meat, poultry,
    fish, dark green leafy veggies, enriched grain
  • Calcium build the bones and teeth of fetus and
    helps replace any calcium taken from the mothers
    bones, sources are dairy products, dark green
    leafy veggies, canned fish with edible bones,
    calcium fortified cereals and juices

Nutrition for Infants and Young Children
  • Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants
  • If breastfeeding is not possible, fortified
    formulas provide the nutrients that infants need
  • After a childs first birthday many parents
    substitute whole milk for formula or breast milk
  • The fats in whole milk provide essential
    nutrients for a childs developing nervous system
  • As a child gets older reduce the whole milk to
    low fat milk

Nutrition and Older Adults
  • Most older adults can get all the calories and
    nutrients they need each day by following the
    recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines and the
    Food Guide Pyramid
  • In certain cases a dietary supplement and/or
    vitamins may be needed