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Phase Equilibriums

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In chemistry, a phase is a part of matter that is uniform. There are 4 phases Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Deposition Sublimation Melting Freezing Evaporation Condensation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phase Equilibriums


1
Phase Equilibriums
2
What is a phase?
  • In chemistry, a phase is a part of matter that is
    uniform.
  • There are 4 phases
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

3
You may remember from earlier in the year that
you can change phases
Condensation
Deposition
Sublimation
Evaporation
Melting
Freezing
4
But what causes material to be in different
phases?
  • Molecular Forces

5
There are 2 broad types of these forces.
  • Ionic and covalent bonds are called
  • (within molecules)
  • between molecules also called
    forces
  • Intermolecular forces are than
    intramolecular forces, so they can be broken
    first.

intramolecular
Intermolecular
Van der Waals
WEAK
always
weaker
6
Types of van der Waal forces
2
  • Dipole-dipole interactions between ___ _______
    covalent molecules
  • Hydrogen Bonding between ___ in one molecule
    with ___, ___, or ___, in another molecule. It
    is an unusually __________ bond and a special
    type of dipole-dipole interactions.
  • Dipole-induced dipole interactions between ___
    _______ and ___ _________ covalent molecules
  • Londons Dispersion Forces between ___
    ____________ covalent molecules

polar
H
F
N
O
strong
1
1
nonpolar
polar
nonpolar
2
7
And the phase of the compound depends on the type
of forces present.
  • The stronger the types of bonds, the more likely
    it will be a solid, the weaker the types of
    bonds, the more likely it will be a gas.

8
Because of this fact, we have a few points that
we can discuss
  • But before we can discuss those, we need to
    define a phase equilibrium

9
Phase Equilibrium
  • The state in which a chemical process and the
    reverse chemical process occur at the same rate

10
Some Points
  • Boiling Point
  • The temperature and pressure at which a liquid
    and a gas are in equilibrium
  • Melting Point
  • The temperature and pressure at which a solid
    becomes a liquid.
  • Freezing Point
  • The temperature and pressure at which a liquid
    substance freezes

11
Two more points
  • Triple point
  • The temperature and pressure conditions at which
    the solid, liquid and gaseous phases of a
    substance coexist at equilibrium
  • Critical Point
  • The temperature and pressure at which the gas and
    liquid states of a substance become identical and
    form one phase the supercritical fluid

12
Every substance has different values for these
points
  • As a result, each substance has a different phase
    diagram

13
What is a phase diagram?
  • A graph of the relationship between the physical
    state of a substance and the temperature and
    pressure of the substance

14
Phase Diagram of Water
15
Now lets draw one of our own
  • From pg 404
  • The triple point of carbon dioxide is at
  • -56.7 ?C and 518 kPa. The critical point is at
    31.3 ?C and 7.38 x 103 kPa. Vapor pressure above
    solid carbon dioxide is 101.3 kPa at -78.5 ?C.
    Solid carbon dioxide is denser than liquid carbon
    dioxide. Sketch the phase diagram.

16
Phase Diagram of CO2
17
Now lets try Practice 1 on page 404 and 42 on
Page 410
  • Lets do them on the boards.

18
Homework
  • Page 405 7
  • Page 409-411 35, 36, 41, 42, 60-65
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