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Sensation and Perception


Sensation and Perception Chapter 4 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sensation and Perception

Sensation and Perception
  • Chapter 4

Sensation and Perception
  • ThEcOwgAvecOla
  • The Cow Gave Cola
  • .rat eht saw tac ehT
  • The cat saw the rat or the cat was the rat

  • I cdnuolt bleveiee taht I cloud aulacity
    uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal
    pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a
    rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't
    mtaetr in waht oerdr the ltteres in a wrod are,
    the olny iproamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and
    lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can
    be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whotuit
    a pboerlm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos
    not raed ervy lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a
    wlohe. Azanmig huh? yaeh, and I awlyas tghuhot
    slpeling was ipmorantt!

  • Spps y wrt n ntrstng stry.  Spps t ws th bst stry
    y hd vr wrttn.  Nw tk tht splndd stry nd rs ll th
    vwls.  rs thm ll ntl th stry mks n sns bcs, wll,
    wht s  wrd wtht  vwl?   spps thr r sm wrds wth n
    vwl.  Th wrd my fr nstnc hs n vwl, bt snt
    thr  syng, nd smtms y?   stry wtht vwls wld b
    cnfsng, prplxng, cmpltly bfflng.  Wld y b bl t rd
    t?  Wld y b bl t cmprhnd wht th stry ws syng?

Sensation and Perception
  • Sensation- the process of receiving information
    from the environment
  • Perception- the process of organizing sensory
    information and making it meaningful
  • Absolute Threshold- the level of sensory
    stimulation needed for sensation (and thus
    perception) to occur
  • Ex. A dim light in a well light room is barely
    visible, yet highly visible in a dark room
  • Ex. Slight ding is barely audible in a noisy
    room, yet highly audible in a quiet room

Sensation and Perception
  • Subliminal Perception (Subliminal Messages)-
    stimulation that is below our threshold and takes
    place below our level of consciousness
  • Watch clips
  • of movies
  • Does subliminal
  • advertising work?

Sensation and Perception
  • Webers Law- to perceive a difference between 2
    stimuli, they must differ by constant proportion
  • Sensory Adaptation- diminished sensitivity with
    constant stimulation
  • Ex. Smell when you walk in a restaurant
  • Ex. Light in a movie theater

Whorff Hypothesis
  • Show list of colors and label the colors
  • List as many words for love as you can
  • List as many words for snow as you can
  • Whorff Hypothesis- the more words a culture has
    for something, the more they perceive it
  • Ex. Teenagers can think of many words for love
  • Ex. Eskimos have many words we have only a few

Sensation- Vision
Vision- sense of seeing White Light- light as it
originates (off the sun or off a bulb) before it
is broken into different frequencies
Vision cont
Vision cont
  • Cornea- clear outer covering of the eye
  • Pupil- adjustable opening in the eye
  • black circle
  • Gets larger in darkness to allow more light in,
    and smaller in brightness to keep light out
  • Iris- colored circular muscle that opens and
    closes the pupil
  • Lens- behind pupil to change shape and focus the
    image in the retina

Vision cont
  • Retina- inner surface in the back of the eye
    which contain million of receptors
  • Rods- visual receptor for black and white
  • Cones- visual receptors for color
  • Page 95 in the book Fire Truck
  • Fovea- central part of the retina where cones
    exist and images are projected
  • Optic Nerve- carries visual information to the
    brain for interpretation

Vision cont
  • Blind Spot- portion of the retina where the optic
    nerve exits the eye, and there are no rods and
  • Put hand over one eye, place other hand straight
    out at arms length and one finger up, move hand
    SLOWLY outward, finger will disappear
  • Page 94 in the book

Vision cont
Vision cont
  • Nearsightedness- see nearby objects more clearly
  • Farsightedness- see faraway objects more clearly
  • Color Blindness- inability to perceive certain
    colors such as red and green
  • Color blind test page 96

Vision cont
  • Afterimage- image that remains after stimulation
    of the retina has ended
  • Cones not used fire to bring the visual system
    back in balance

Another afterimage activity on page 97
  • Opponent Processing Theory- opposing retinal
    processes enable color vision
  • Red Green
  • Blue Yellow
  • Black White

Sensation- Hearing
  • Audition- sense of hearing
  • Pitch- how high or low a sound is
  • Depends on the frequency- how many times the wave
    passes through a point
  • Timbre- the complexity of a sound
  • Intensity- how loud a sound is
  • Decibels- measure of sounds intensity (loudness)

Hearing cont
(No Transcript)
Hearing cont
  • Eardrum- piece of skin stretched tightly over the
    entrance to the ear
  • Like a real drum
  • Sound waves hit the ear drum and vibrate, causing
    connected bones to vibrate
  • Cochlea- snail shaped part of the ear filled with
    liquid and small hairs
  • Cilia- hair cells in the cochlea that receive
    different frequencies
  • Like strings on a musical instrument
  • Auditory Nerve- bundle of nerves that carry sound
    from the ear to the brain

Sensation- Touch
  • Cutaneous Receptors- nerve receptors in the skin
    which respond to pressure, temperature, and pain
  • 3 Sensations of touch
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Pain

Sensation- Smell
  • Olfaction- the sense of smell
  • Olfactory bulbs- units that receive odor
    molecules and communicate their nature to the
  • Pheromones- odor chemicals that communicate a

Smell cont
Smell cont
Sensation- Taste
  • Taste Receptors- chemical receptors on the tongue
    that decode molecules of food or drink to
    identify them
  • 4 Sensations of Taste
  • Salt
  • Sweet
  • Sour
  • Bitter

  • Sensory Interaction- principle that one sense may
    influence another
  • Ex smell and taste regarding food