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Amino Acids and Proteins

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Amino Acids and Proteins What is an amino acid / protein Where are they found Properties of the amino acids How are proteins synthesized Transcription & translation – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Amino Acids and Proteins


1
Amino Acids and Proteins
  1. What is an amino acid / protein
  2. Where are they found
  3. Properties of the amino acids
  4. How are proteins synthesized
  5. Transcription translation

2
Amino Acids
Amine and carboxyl groups. Sidechain R is
attached to C-alpha carbon The amino acids found
in Living organisms are L-amino acids
3
Amino Acids - peptide bond
N-terminal
C-terminal
4
Transcription translation
DNA Transcription mRNA
Translation Protein
movie
In higher organisms the picture is a bit more
complex. DNA -gt pre-mRNA -gt mRNA -gtprotein Protei
n might need a chaperone in order to fold
correctly.
5
Subcellular location
An animal cell
6
Proteins - where are they found
  1. Proteins are found in all living organisms
  2. In humans there are approx 25.000 proteins
  3. Each protein has a specific function
  4. Making up the human tissue - skin, hair, heart
    ...
  5. Degrading the food we eat
  6. Immune system
  7. Transportation of Oxygen in blood
  8. Triggering the growth of cells
  9. The brain - neural signalling
  10. Typically a protein is approx 220 aa in human
  11. Proteins talk, i.e. Protein-protein interactions
  12. To relay a signal across the cell-membrane

7
1 and 3-letter codes
  1. There are 20 naturally occurring amino acids
  2. Normally the one/three codes are used

Met - M Asn - N Pro - P Gln - Q Arg - R Ser -
S Thr - T Val - V Trp - W Tyr - Y
Ala - A Cys - C Asp - D Glu - E Phe - F Gly -
G His - H Ile - I Lys - K Leu - L
8
Graphic stick representationDifferent aa,
different property
Ile - Hydrophobic
Phe - Hydrophobic aromatic
9
The 20 amino acids
10
Charged amino acids(sidechain in red)
Arg - R
Lys - K
Asp - D
Glu - E
His - H
11
Neutral amino acids
Ile - I
Leu - L
Met - M
Phe - F
Pro - P
12
Property of amino acids (I)neutral, polar or
charged ?
Ala - A
Asn - N
Cys - C
Gln - Q
Gly - G
13
Property of amino acids (II)neutral, polar or
charged ?
Ser - S
Thr - T
Trp - W
Tyr - Y
Val - V
14
Protein structure
Primary structure Amino acids sequences
Secondary structure Helix/Beta sheet
Tertiary structure Fold, 3D cordinates
15
Protein structure?-helix
????helix 3 residues/turn - few, but not
uncommon ?-helix 3.6 residues/turn - by far the
most common helix Pi-helix 4.1 residues/turn -
very rare
16
Protein structure??strand/sheet
17
Protein structure
Ribbon representation - easy to see the secondary
structure elements
18
Protein structure
19
Protein structureHydrophilic/hydrophobic
stacking
20
Protein folds
Class 4th is few secondary structure
Architecture Overall shape of a domain
Topology Share secondary structure connectivity
21
Summary
translation
transcription
DNA -gt mRNA -gt Protein
  • 20 naturally occurring amino acids
  • Each amino acid has different properties, but can
    be grouped into
  • Charged, neutral, polar (basic, acidic)
  • Secondary structure
  • ?-helix ?-strand/?-sheet
  • Protein hydrophobic inside, polar on the outside
  • Folds or classes all ?, all ?, ??, few secondar
    structure elements

22
SummaryThe amino acids
Ala
M -
Met
A -
N -
Asn
C -
Cys
P -
Pro
D -
Asp
Q -
Gln
E -
Glu
R -
Arg
Phe
F -
S -
Ser
G -
Gly
H -
His
T -
Thr
I -
Ile
V -
Val
W -
Trp
K -
Lys
Y -
Tyr
L -
Leu
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