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Chapter 3 An Overview of Schooling in America

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Chapter 3 An Overview of Schooling in America So You Want to be a Teacher? Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century Janice Koch Teaching by Sharleen L. Kato – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 An Overview of Schooling in America


1
Chapter 3 An Overview of Schooling in America
  • So You Want to be a Teacher? Teaching and
    Learning in the 21st Century
  • Janice Koch
  • Teaching by Sharleen L. Kato

2
  • A Brief History of American Public Education

3
The Colonies
  • Early colonial education began in the home in the
    1600s when Puritans established colonies in what
    is not the northeastern USA.
  • Education was designed to further Puritan values
    and ensure that children were well versed in the
    Bible.
  • Hornbooks a flat wooden board with a handle. A
    sheet of paperusually containing the alphabet, a
    prayer or two, and Roman numerals was pasted on
    the board. A thin, flat piece of clear animal
    horn was Attached to cover and protect the paper.
    Used during the Colonial Period.

4
Dame School
  • The primary responsibility of educating children
    was placed on the family.
  • New England families could opt to send there
    children to dame schools.
  • Dame Schools in early America, schools run by
    women in their own homes, and parents paid a fee
    for their children to attend.

5
  • The woman would do her chores while teaching
    children their letters, numbers and prayers.
  • This was the only form of education for girls
    since it was not important for their life work.
  • After young boys finished dame schools they would
    become an apprentice.
  • Apprentice is someone who learns a skilled trade
    by watching and helping someone in that trade.

6
  • Servings as an apprentice allowed boy to learn a
    skill to take into adulthood.
  • Girls were taught domestic skills at home and
    learned to stitch letters.

7
Latin Grammar School
  • Latin Grammar Schools, the first opened in 1635,
    sons of upper social classes studied Latin and
    Greek language and literature as well as the
    Bible.
  • To further boys education Harvard College was
    founded by the Puritans in 1636. The entry
    requirements were entrance exam that required
    reading and speaking Latin and Greek.

8
  • 1647, Massachusetts passed a law requiring formal
    education. It is known as the Old Deluder
    Satan Act, mandate that every town of 50
    households must appoint and pay a teacher of
    reading and writing, while every town of 100
    households must provide a grammar school to
    prepare youths for university.
  • The Latin grammar school is considered one of the
    forerunners of the American high schools.

9
Geographical Differences in Colonial Education
  • Where you lived had a great impact on the type of
    education that was available.
  • In 1647, Northern Colonies, principally taught
    the Bible.
  • Mid-Atlantic colonies, established various trades
    and apprenticeship programs.
  • Southern Colonies (more rural). Wealthy
    plantation owners hired private tutors for their
    children. Young gentlemen were sent abroad to
    Europe for the education.

10
Late Colonial Period
  • Schools managed by private association, often
    devoted to the skills needed for a specific type
    of job.
  • Religious schools, sponsored by churches for
    their members. Some churches also established
    charity schools for the urban poor.
  • Few private academies offering secondary
    education with a broader curriculum than the
    early Latin grammar school.

11
  • Several options required tuitions, others were
    paid for by public funds, and some were funded by
    a combination of both.
  • Girls still had little education. Native
    Americans and African Americans practically had
    NO EDUCATION.
  • Poor families had to sign a Paupers Oath.
    Many families choose to leave their children
    illiterate rather than suffer the shame of this
    type of public admission.

12
The New Nation
  • 1700s, efforts were made to consolidate schools
    and make education mandatory throughout the new
    nation.
  • 1785, Congress enacted the Land Ordinance Act and
    the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. These measures
    set aside land for public schools.
  • Schools were one room with benches and a stove.
    Desk and blackboards came years later. No
    grades were given and one teacher worked with
    several age levels at the same time.

One Room Schoolhouse
13
The Academy
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • If common people were well
  • educated, they could take part in
  • democratic government, and it
  • would thrive. He introduced
  • legislation to divide counties into
  • smaller districts that were
  • responsible for a public system of
  • education. He wanted to make sure
  • that elementary schools were
  • available without cost. He also
  • established the University of
  • Virginia.
  • He began the first public library.
  • He worked to expand educational
  • opportunities to anyone who could
  • pay the tuition and attend,
  • regardless of their religious beliefs.
  • He influenced schools to teach good
  • citizenship and a wide variety of
  • subjects.

14
  • In 1751, Ben Franklin established the academy.
    The Academy is a type of private secondary school
    that allow students to choose subjects (science,
    math, athletics, navigation, and bookkeeping)
    appropriate to their later careers.
  • The Franklin Academy in Philadelphia was open to
    both girls and boysif the parent could afford
    the tuition.
  • Academies changed the model for secondary schools
    by offering electives as well as required
    courses.

15
Rise of the Common School
  • Jefferson, Franklin, and others believed that the
    new democracy required and educated citizenry for
    its survival. They felt the citizens should be
    informed and the education system should allow
    people to succeed on the basis of skill and
    dedication rather than inherited privilege.

16
  • Common schools public, tax supported
  • elementary school available to children
  • from all levels of Society. Horace Mann is
  • considered the father of the public school.
  • Curriculum included reading, writing, and
  • arithmetic, history, science and
  • Some Bible reading of the
  • King James version of the Bible.

17
  • Catholic immigrants objected to common schools
    and begun the Parochial schools. A school
    operated by a religious group.
  • In 1963, the US Supreme Court ruled that prayers
    and Bible readings could no longer be allowed in
    public schools.
  • To ensure kids went to school and not to work,
    attendance laws came into existence. These laws
    were adopted by each state beginning with
    Massachusetts in 1852 and ending with Alaska in
    1929.

18
Expansion of Public Schools
  • By took hold and became the 1890 Tax-supported
    public high schools dominate form of secondary
    education.
  • Early 1900s, the junior high school was
    established to bridge the gap, concentrating on
    the emotional and intellectual needs of students
    (7th-9th grade).
  • In the 1950s, middle schools was established for
    5th 8th grade. By the end of the 20th century
    the middle school was replacing the junior high
    school.

19
  • In the early 1800s school lasted 75-80 days. In
    today's time that would mean school would last
    until December 3rd.
  • The remainder of the time the family used to work
    the farm.
  • By 1890 over 70 of children were attending
    school.
  • We can celebrate that our nation grew with more
    people attending school.
  • More diverse students are graduating from high
    school and going on the postsecondary education
    than ever before.

20
The Role Horace Mann Played
  • The first public state-supported schools were
    established, giving the same education to people
    from different levels of Society.
  • He established teacher training schools. He
    advocated the
  • establishment of free libraries. He increased
    state funding for public
  • schools by using state taxes to pay for
    education.
  • He believed schools should be nonsectarian and
    not teach any specific belief system.

20
20
21
Teacher Education and the Development of Normal
Schools
  • Horace Mann promoted normal schools.
  • Normal schools prepared men and women with the
    necessary skills to become teachers. They begun
    in the 1830s.
  • They were two-year institutions taught courses in
    history and philosophy of education and methods
    of teaching.
  • They were to develop more qualified teachers.
  • By the end of the 1800s, these schools became
    four-year colleges dedicated to teacher
    education.

22
Normal Schools and Female Teachers
  • Normal schools played a major role in brining
    women into the teaching profession.
  • In the early days of American education,
    schoolmasters were almost always male.
  • School teachers of the late 1800s looked sharp
    in their work attire as witnessed in this photo
    of grandaunt Julia Drew and her friend Mertie
    Gracie. 
  • http//www.famhist.us/2011/09/19/school-teachers-o
    f-the-1800s/

23
  • It was assumed that they were incapable of
    maintaining the discipline necessary to teach
    effectively.
  • Normal schools, welcomed female students and make
    elementary school teaching a career path form
    many women.
  • By 1900, 71 of rural teachers were women.

24
Gender Roles in Teaching
  • In the 1900s, teaching became more attractive for
    women.
  • There were considerable constraints on women who
    became teachers, chief among them there were not
    allowed to marry.
  • It was believed that a married woman would have
    divided loyalties if they were allowed to marry
    while being teachers. After WWII it changed.

25
  • By the 1950s, the teaching profession had become
    a female-dominated, feminized profession in
    many peoples eyes.
  • The overall percentage of men in teaching has
    declined significantly since the 1960s.

26
The Tuskegee Normal School and the Education of
African Americans
  • It took a long time for African Americans to
    achieve equal opportunity and access to a quality
    education.
  • Booker T. Washington, in 1881 became the first
    head of what was then the Tuskegee Normal School
    for Colored Teachers. Later renamed the Tuskegee
    Institute.
  • Under his leadership they prepared African
    American teachers to be self-reliant, and to
    acquire practical vocational skills.

27
  • Competing Visions Efforts to Rethink and Reform
    Education

28
The High School Curriculum
  • 1892, the National Education Association (NEA)
    appointed the Committee of Ten to determine the
    proper curriculum for high schools.
  • They recommended
  • 8 yrs of elementary school
  • 4 yrs of high school

29
  • The high school curriculum had courses for
    college bound and terminal students.
  • The courses included foreign language, history,
    math, science and English.
  • 1918, NEA recommended four tracks for H.S.
  • College preparatory
  • Commercial (bookkeeping, shorthand, typing)
  • Industrial (prep for agriculture, trade, and
    domestic)
  • General academic

30
  • Federal State Efforts at Educational Reform
  • Funding, Priorities, Standards

31
Separate but Equal?
32
  • African Americans were denied the right to an
    education when this country was new and evolving.
  • Schools that did develop after the Civil War was
    separate, only for black children.

33
  • 1896 Supreme Court ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson,
    separate but equal public facilities for
    different races were legal.
  • They did not share equally in the resource
    available for public schooling in most
    locations, they had fewer tax dollars and
    inferior conditions.

34
  • 1954 with the case of Brown v. Board of Education
    of Topeka, Kansas.
  • In this case the Supreme Court of the USA ruled
    unanimously that separate schools for whites and
    blacks were inherently unequal because the
    effects of such separate schooling are likely to
    be different.
  • Schools could not remain segregated.

35
  • The efforts toward integration had a significant
    impact, but there was much turmoil and
    resistance.
  • Numerous educators argue that de facto
    segregation still exists today in may cities and
    especially in suburban America.
  • The Civil Rights Act (1964), reinforced the
    importance of creating educational opportunities
    for all Americans regardless of race, gender, or
    ethnicity.
  • The Bilingual Education Act of 1968/1974 gave
    funding to school districts that established
    programs for children with limited
    English-language ability.

36
The Elementary and Secondary Act
  • EASA was passed in 1965. Provided federal
    financing of schools in America.
  • Every 5 years since it was enacted it has been
    reauthorized.
  • Federal government distribute funds to the each
    state then the state, the state identify the
    schools/districts to receive the funds.

37
  • Title 1 is the section of federal education law
    that provides funds for compensatory education.
    Compensatory education are services designed
    specifically to create better opportunities for
    students with disadvantages. For instance
  • Tutoring and other supplemental academic
    instruction
  • Head start
  • After School centers
  • Computer labs for economically disadvantage
    schools
  • Dropout prevention
  • Job training
  • Parental education
  • Professional development for teachers

38
  • The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) OF 2001
    revised the ESEA and called for states to develop
    content-area standards and annual testing of math
    and reading in grades 3-8.
  • Schools with poor test scores risk the
    possibility of being closed.
  • This also gives parents a choice about where
    their children go to school.

39
Title IX
  • Title IX, part of the Education Amendments of
    1972, is a federal law that prohibits
    discrimination on the basis of sex in any federal
    funded education program or activity.
  • It protects the rights of males and females from
    Pre-K through graduate school in sports,
    financial aid, employment, counseling, an school
    regulations and policies.

40
  • A great impact of Title IX is on girls sports
    activities and facilities it requires that
    schools provide equal opportunities, funding, and
    facilities for boys and girls teams.

41
A Nation at Risk
  • In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in
    Education issued a report called, A Nation At
    Risk The Imperative for Education Reform.
  • The report called for tougher standards for
    graduation, increases in required number of math
    and science courses, higher college entrance
    requirements, and a return to academic basics.

42
  • Increase in the amount of homework given, longer
    school day, more rigorous requirements for
    teachers, and updated textbooks.
  • The at risk wording implied that the USA would
    lose it global competitive edge if the reforms
    were not carried out.

43
The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
  • Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) is the
    federal law that guarantees that all children
    with disabilities receive free, appropriate
    public education.
  • Before 1975 there were no such laws. Often they
    were taught in separate classrooms, and provided
    with watered down curricula.

44
  • Strong efforts have been made to include students
    with disabilities in regular classrooms. This is
    known as inclusion.
  • There are some classes where students with
    learning disabilities are integrated with general
    education students as much as possible.

45
Types of Learning Disabilities
  • Dyslexia
  • Dysgraphia
  • Dyscalculia
  • Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder)
  • Nonverbal Learning Disability
  • CAPD (Central Auditory Processing Disorder)
  • Visual Processing Disorder
  • ADD or ADHD (Attention Deficit Disorder)
  • Autism

Resource Information http//drlindasblog.com/list-
of-learning-disabilities/
46
  • Partial inclusion is when special education
    students are in class with general/regular ed.
    students some of the time.
  • Self-contained class where students stay in one
    room all day and have instruction.

47
Standards-Based Education Reform
  • In 1990s, States were asked to prepare content
    standards based on the national guidelines and to
    create assessments to match the standards.
  • Current era, is dominated by standards-based
    school reform and assessments. It is driven by
    No Child Left Behind, 2002.

48
  • It is a model of considerable rigor,
    accountability, and strict benchmarks for student
    learning.
  • Today, teachers and administrators often find
    they have relatively little freedom to vary the
    curriculum of even the order in which topics are
    taught.
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