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Pengenalan Pengurusan Krisis Organisasi Kuliah 1

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Pengenalan Pengurusan Krisis Organisasi Kuliah 1 * * Consequences: The show, Sensasi, was terminated immediately after the episode. SKMM terminated its LIVE airtime ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pengenalan Pengurusan Krisis Organisasi Kuliah 1


1
Pengenalan Pengurusan Krisis Organisasi Kuliah
1
2
Definisi Krisis
  • Krisis dan Konflik
  • Cth krisis ekonomi, krisis Kosovo, konflik
    Chetya
  • Krisis merangkumi
  • Keadaan yang merbahaya seperti penyakit. Cth
    H1N1
  • Keadaan yang mengancam keamanan dan keselamatan
  • Kejadian yang boleh merosak atau memberi kesan
    terhadap keseluruhan organisasi/unit atau
    bahagian organisasi

3
Definisi Krisis
  • Kejadian yang boleh mengugat kewujudan
    organisasi, produk yang dihasilkan, unit
    perniagaan atau kedudukan kewangan organisasi
  • Kejadian yang boleh menjejas kesihatan pengguna,
    pekerja, dan persekitaran masyarakat sekeliling
  • Kejadian/keadaan yang boleh merosakkan
    kepercayaan orang ramai terhadap organisasi, imej
    dan reputasi organisasi

4
Definisi Krisis
  • Kejadian penting yang tidak dijangkakan dan
    memberi kesan negatif ke atas organisasi
    kejadian yang berlaku dan kesan daripada kejadian
    tersebut boleh memberi kerosakan besar terhadap
    pekerja, produk, perkhidmatan, kewangan dan
    reputasi (Barton, 1993)

5
Definisi Krisis
  • Krisis adalah satu masalah besar yang muncul
    secara tiba-tiba.
  • Lerbinger (1997) krisis adalah sebagai kejadian
    yang membawa, atau berpotensi menjejaskan
    reputasi organisasi serta mengancam keuntungan,
    perkembangan, dan kewujudan organisasi
    (Lerbinger, 1997)
  • Krisis adalah keadaan atau masa yang tidak stabil
    di mana keputusan untuk berubah amat diperlukan
    sama ada memberi hasil yang positif yang
    diharapkan atau memberi kesan negatif kepada
    organisasi (Fink, 1986)

6
Definisi Krisis
  • Gangguan secara fizikal yang memberi kesan kepada
    sistem secara keseluruhan, kepada andaian asas,
    dan kepada kewujudan organisasi (Pauchant dan
    Mitroff, 1992)
  • Menurut Pauchant dan Mitroff, krisis boleh
    memberi kesan terhadap kesahihan organisasi,
    boleh mengubah misi strategik organisasi dan juga
    mengganggu pandangan orang ramai terhadap
    organisasi.
  • Krisis adalah sesuatu yang relatif dan subjektif
    kerana maksud krisis bergantung kepada keperluan
    organisasi dan persekitaran
  • Krisis mempunyai kaitan terus dengan pencapaian
    matlamat organisasi

7
Pengurusan Krisis (PK)
  • Pengurusan krisis adalah satu kaedah yang
    sistematik dan tersusun bagi menangani sesuatu
    krisis
  • PK membolehkan aktiviti harian organisasi sama
    ada mengeluarkan produk atau memberi perkhidmatan
    diteruskan
  • Sistem pengesanan awal dibuat dengan audit
  • Lebih kos-efektif kerana jimat kos tidak
    memerlukan pasukan mengurus krisis yang besar

8
Pengurusan Krisis (PK)
  • Menurut Littlejohn (1983) PK merujuk kepada
    penggunaan prinsip pengurusan yang dirangka bagi
    mengenalpasti, mengatasi dan mengurus krisis
  • Merangkumi pemilihan ahli pasukan, merangka
    pelan, memberi latihan, dan mengurus krisis

9
Pengurusan Krisis (PK)
  • Menurut Littlejohn (1983) PK merujuk kepada
    penggunaan prinsip pengurusan yang dirangka bagi
    mengenalpasti, mengatasi dan mengurus krisis
  • Merangkumi pemilihan ahli pasukan, merangka
    pelan, memberi latihan, dan mengurus krisis

10
Ciri-ciri Krisis Organisasi
  • Mempunyai unsur kejutan, tidak dijangkakan
  • Membuat organisasi hilang kawalan
  • Keadaan yang semakin membesar atau meruncing
  • Maklumat tidak cukup, maklumat bertentangan
  • Memerlukan jangkamasa membuat keputusan yang
    singkat
  • Mengugat kewujudan organisasi

11
Ciri-ciri Krisis Organisasi
  • Berpotensi memberi kesan negatif
  • Situasi yang mempunyai risiko yang meningkat
  • Mendapat perhatian media dan kerajaan
  • Mengganggu aktiviti biasa organisasi
  • Merosakkan imej organisasi dan keupayaan
    organisasi

12
Krisis
  • Berlaku secara tiba-tiba krisis yang tidak
    dijangka seperti tindakan pihak pengganas
    merampas kapal terbang di India suatu ketika
    dahulu, World Trade Centre diserang pengganas,
    kes kapal terbang Air France terhempas dalam
    lautan, atau produk yang dicemari dengan bahan
    toksid atau racun seperti kes Tylenol, Johnson
    Johnson.

13
KEADAAN-KEADAAN YANG BOLEH MENYEBABKAN KRISIS
  • Kemalangan di tempat kerja
  • Khabar angin
  • Kematian mengejut eksekutif
  • Kesilapan teknologi
  • Ancaman/tindakan ganas pekerja yang tidak puas
    hati
  • Kerosakan disebabkan bencana alam
  • Boikot, piket, mogok
  • Sasaran pengambil-alihan
  • Kualiti produk
  • Tindakan undang-undang

14
Jenis-jenis Krisis
  • Kegagalan komputer Y2K
  • Pencemaran
  • Cubaan mengambil alih pengurusan syarikat
  • Salah guna wang syarikat
  • Kemalangan persekitaran letupan logi nuklear
  • Tembak menembak atau jenayah di premis syarikat
  • Perletakan jawatan atau pemberhentian pengurusan
    syarikat secara tiba-tiba
  • Menarik balik produk dalam pasaran disebabkan
    pencemaran dll

15
Jenis-jenis Krisis
  • Bantahan daripada masyarakat setempat atau
    persatuan pengguna
  • Iklan media yang dibuat oleh pihak lawan
  • Laporan negatif tentang produk dalam media atau
    jurnal perubatan
  • Lain-lain???

16
KATEGORI KRISIS
  • Serangan luar terhadap ekonomi perkara-perkara
    luaran yang menggugat keadaan ekonomi dan
    kewangan seperti peras ugut, rasuah, boikot,
    cubaan ambil alih syarikat.
  • Serangan luar terhadap maklumat serangan dari
    luar terhadap maklumat penting dan sulit
    organisasi seperti kecurian maklumat dan khabar
    angin yang merosakkan.
  • Kerosakkan/kegagalan berfungsi kilang tidak
    berfungsi disebabkan peralatan dan kemudahan
    rosak, dan pekerja yang mengahadapi tekanan,
    kesilapan manusia, kemudahan keselamatan
    dicerobohi.

17
Faktor lain
  • Psychopathology atau tindakan tidak siuman
    sabotaj, pencemaran produk, penculikan CEO
    organisasi, gangguan seksual.
  • Faktor sumber manusia (kemanusiaan) pekerja
    yang tidak bersemangat, ketua organisasi yang
    sering bertukar ganti, bahaya/ risiko di tempat
    kerja.

18
Kesan krisis
  • Reputasi terjejas
  • Hilang kredibiliti, kepercayaan dan keyakinan
    terhadap organisasi
  • Hilang kesetiaan daripada pekerja
  • Menjejaskan jualan produk
  • Keuntungan kurang
  • Perlukan perbelanjaan tambahan
  • Perubahan pegawai
  • Produktiviti menurun

19
PENGURUSAN KRISIS
  • Perlu penglibatan semua jabatan dalam organisasi.
  • Menggunakan sumber-sumber yang ada.
  • Pengurus yang boleh bertindak dalam keadaan
    tertekan (stress).
  • Pengurus yang mempunyai pengetahuan tentang teori
    dan aplikasi perlakuan organisasi, komunikasi
    organisasi, etika, strategi dan PR.

20
Siapa yang terlibat?
  • Komponen pasukan mengurus krisis
  • pentadbiran kanan- TP pentadbiran/operasi
  • operasi teknikal
  • hal ehwal awam
  • perhubungan awam
  • hal ehwal pelanggan
  • perhubungan pelabur
  • periklanan
  • Pasukan mengurus krisis perlu bersatu dan
    berupaya bekerja sebagai satu pasukan

21
Kegagalan Mengurus Krisis
  • Kegagalan mengurus krisis kerana
  • bercakap tanpa kuasa, tidak tahu budaya,
    prosedur, norma organisasi. (43)
  • beri berdasarkan maklumat tidak betul yang
    diberi oleh pihak lain dalam organisasi. (27)
  • mengambil tindakan yang merumitkan lagi
    krisis. Tindakan untuk membantu menyelesaikan
    krisis tetapi tidak dianggap begitu. (22)
  • Apakah yang menyebabkan kegagalan organisasi
    menangani krisis?

22
KENAPA KRISIS MENJADI SEMAKIN PENTING
  • Perubahan teknologi.
  • Kemunculan pendapat umum secara formal.
  • Kadar literasi yang meningkat.

23
CRISIS 1 Faizal Tahir SUPERMAN Striptease
  • Show 8TV Anniversary Concert
  • Channel 8TV
  • Venue Central Park Avenue, Bandar Utama
  • Time 8.30 pm to 10.30 pm (prime time)
  • Date Monday, 14 January 2008
  • Airtime LIVE telecast

24
  • Who are involved?
  • ?? Faizal Tahir, local singer.
  • ?? 8TV producers, crews and the group.
  • ?? Cause of crisis deliberate act of striptease
  • by Faizal Tahir for 7 minutes LIVE on air
  • on Malaysian local broadcast station.

25
  • Chronology
  • Show was on 14 Jan 08. Prime time.
  • News article (print media) was printed on the
    very next day and pictures of Faizal Tahir were
    circulating on the Net immediately.
  • SKMM (Suruhanjaya Komunikasi dan Multimedia
    Malaysia)
  • was alerted via media reports (newspaper),
    SKMM initiated own investigation on the case. The
    case also got the attention of JAKIM (Jabatan
    Kemajuan Islam Malaysia), KEKKWA
  • (Ministry of Art, Culture and Heritage),
    Information Ministry
  • and Lembaga Penapisan Filem (LPF).
  • Media Prima (MP) was alerted and the regulator
    asked for the
  • recorded tape for investigation.

26
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation of the recorded tape showed that FT
    had acted a
  • planned strategy in duration of 7 minutes
    taken off his jacket,
  • his shirt, his belt and exposing a Superman
    logo on his bare
  • chest.
  • SKMM has ruled out that the act as a deliberate
    act of striptease and a planned action.
  • It was a serious lapse of judgment by FT that it
    was lack of
  • sensitivity of the community and inconsistent
    with local values.

27
  • Consequences
  • All approvals for 8TV for live concert/entertainme
    nt were
  • revoked. The time frame was from 15 January
    to 15
  • April 2008 (3 months).
  • Enforcement action was taken. The station was
    compounded
  • RM 50,000.00.
  • Affected the HR dept in terminating/suspending
    crews and
  • staff involved.
  • The event gave high impact to the whole group and
  • especially to Juara Lagu competition that was
    scheduled on
  • 27 Jan 08 (TV3).

28
  • Steps taken by 8TV in handling the crisis
  • COO of 8TV, Ahmad Izham, organized a Conference
    to clarify
  • and explain the repercussions of the incident
    to public
  • Sponsorships
  • HR- Manpower crews/staff suspended/terminated
  • Future programs i.e Malaysian Idol and Chinese
  • Spring Festival
  • Faizal Tahir was banned 3 months and ordered to
  • exercise charity works.
  • Future show case will be recorded, edited and
    approved
  • by LPF before airtime.

29
  • Evaluation of the crisis management by 8TV
  • Slow. The group took more than 1 day to damage
  • control action to convey the messages to
    media.
  • 8TV is aware of expected crisis when airing a
    LIVE
  • content. No measure of quality control was
    taken. No
  • briefing and no training were given to crews
    especially
  • cameramen.
  • The crisis had in fact brought Faizal Tahir name
    to rise but
  • not to 8TV.

30
CRISIS 2 Rosnah Mat Aris Insulted the Holy
Prophet
  • Show Sensasi
  • Channel TV3
  • Time 11 pm to 12 midnight
  • Date 30 January 2007
  • Airtime LIVE telecast

31
  • Who are involved?
  • Rosnah Mat Aris, local actress.
  • TV3 producers, crews and the group.
  • Cause of crisis Rosnah, the guest of Sensasi
    show, cited the Holy Prophet in insulting way
    when he married a much older woman, Khadijah.

32
  • Chronology
  • Show was on 30th Jan 07. Sensasi is a gossip
    show that
  • conducts interviews live sessions conducted
    by two hosts,
  • Awal Ashaari and Intan Suraya. Began its
    episode on 26th Dec 06. Scheduled for a
    13-episodes block.
  • News article (print media) was printed on the
    very next day
  • and was circulating on the Net immediately.
  • Based on special reports by KEKWA, Jakim,
    Information
  • Ministry and LPF, SKMM was called in to
    investigate the
  • case.
  • Media Prima (MP) was alerted and the regulator
    asked for the
  • recorded tape for investigation.

33
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation of the recorded tape showed that Awal
    Ashaari started his interview session with Rosnah
    by introducing her public image to the audience
    as matured blonde actress, had several
    relationships with younger men and also had acted
    a physical contact on her by touching her cheeks
    and made remarks about Botox injection.
  • Later in the interview session, the host asked
    Rosnah about her opinion in having relationship
    with younger men when out of sudden conscious
    Rosnah had made remark of the Holy Prophet
    married an older woman name Khadijah and citing
    Khadijah as tua nak mampos! (old and near
    death).
  • It was a serious lapse of judgment by Rosnah Mat
    Aris that it was lack of sensitivity of the
    community and inconsistent with local values.
  • SKMM ruled out that this case as lack of
    aspiration values in religion and cultural. The
    lack of experience of the host in mediating the
    interview session had also given extra mileage in
    the case.

34
  • Consequences
  • The show, Sensasi, was terminated immediately
    after the episode.
  • SKMM terminated its LIVE airtime but allowed TV3
    to continue the show by recording session. But
    TV3 chose to end the program immediately.
  • Affected the HR dept in terminating/suspending
    crews and staff involved.
  • The event gave high impact to the whole group and
    especially to Rosnah Mat Aris as an individual
    and her acting career.
  • The case induced controversial reports by media,
    religious
  • groups and political parties.
  • Rosnah was only banned by the government
    broadcast station, RTM, for 1 year.
  • 8TV was compounded RM50,000.00 for breaching of
    license condition.

35
  • Steps taken by TV3 in handling the crisis
  • Almost nothing. TV3 only terminated the program
    and left
  • Rosnah to deal with the crisis alone. Rosnah
    was left alone to make public apology on her own
    initiative through interviews with reporters.
  • Future show case will be recorded, edited and
    approved by LPF before airtime.

36
  • Evaluation of the crisis management by TV3
  • The group took more than 1 day to execute the
    damage control action to convey the messages to
    media.
  • TV3 left Rosnah to deal with the crisis alone.
    This showed a lack of professionalism by TV3. TV3
    should instigate the crisis plan and elicit
    answers from Rosnah rather than leaving her
    answering questions from media alone.
  • This had caused more damage to herself and
    portraying bad image to the show.
  • The crisis had tarnished Rosnahs name but TV3
    remains as the leading Malay channel despite its
    silent way in treating the crisis. Question?
    Maybe its a way to deal with it??
  • The program was lack of value, and the objective
    is to insult the guests.
  • Rosnah Mat Aris was in fact ridiculed and
    provoked by cynical
  • questions that were lack of sensitivity.

37
CRISIS 3 Adlin Aman Ramli and Saleem (Iklim)
Drugs Remark
  • Show AF4 week 3 concert
  • Channel Astro RIA
  • Time 9.00 pm to 11.00 pm(prime time)
  • Date Sunday, 18 June 2006
  • Airtime LIVE Telecast

38
  • Who are involved?
  • Adlin Aman Ramli an actor assigned as permanent
    critic for AF4 concert and
  • Saleem a local rock singer (Iklim), well-known
    for his drug
  • abuse.
  • Astro RIA producer and Astro group
  • Cause of crisis Adlin commented on Faizal Ramli
    (AF4 student) on his performance and insinuated a
    drug abuse remark to Saleem, guest artist for
    that show which Saleem felt it was targeted
    towards him.

39
  • Chronology
  • AF4 weekly concert - week 3.
  • Faizal Ramli (the student) was performing a
    popular song, Blues Terengganu Kita during his
    last performance. The original singer, Saleem,
    made a surprise appearance and sang along with
    him on stage.
  • Adlin then gave his comment on his performance by
    saying ko jangan ambik dadahisap ganja, ko kena
    ingat ini kalau nak berjaya.. (You should never
    take drugs. You have to remember this if you want
    to be successful) which indirectly had offended
    Saleem.
  • Saleem demanded for an open apology by Adlin
    which will lead to him being sued if he fails to
    do so.
  • SKMM was alerted by media report to investigate
    the case and
  • demanded that the program to be seized.

40
  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation of the recorded tape, SKMM found that
    the comments
  • made by Adlin carried a negative insinuation
    to Saleem who had
  • performed on stage with Faizal.
  • Adlins remarks were not scripted and he was
    being honest with
  • his comments but it sounded harsh and
    carried double meaning.
  • Astro had taken steps to control critics
    comments by having
  • briefing and providing guidelines.
  • Astro also had taken steps to prevent future
    breach in the future by
  • instigated the crisis plan immediately in
    the show itself with the
  • help of a professional host of the show.
  • The comments were personal in nature and do not
    have a criminal
  • element or affects general sensitivity.

41
  • Consequences
  • Saleem made several controversial interviews with
    press expressing his disappointment with Adlins
    remark.
  • Media published the incident only on 20th June
    2006 (2 days after
  • the issue).
  • KEKKWA threatened to seize the whole program.
  • Steps taken by Astro in handling the crisis
  • Measurements for damage control kicked-in
    immediately. Astro
  • responded to the issue as positive message to
    the student as it was not scripted or
    intentional.
  • A meeting was arranged on 19 June by the group
    and held a
  • PC between Adlin, Saleem and press. Adlin
    made a public apology during the PC.
  • The group also extended the public apology by
    Adlin in various shows that involved AF program
    that was Diari AF and during the following
    concert night. The producer had arranged for a
    live phone tele-conversation between Adlin and
    Saleem where Adlin
  • apologized and Saleem accepted the apology.

42
  • Evaluation of the crisis management by Astro RIA
  • The group handled the damage control immediately
    and
  • managed to control the press from publishing
    the news straight away.
  • Astro RIA worked hand-in-hand with Adlin to
    settle the crisis and provided him with positive
    back-up.
  • The crisis itself had brought Adlins name to
    rise.

43
  • TERIMA KASIH
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