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Bacteria

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BACTERIA Identification (based on shapes, cell walls, or movement) Shapes: Bacilli = rods Cocci = round Spirilla = spiral BACILLI (RODS) COCCI (ROUND) SPIRILLI ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bacteria


1
Bacteria Viruses
2
BACTERIA
  • Prokaryotic no nucleus
  • Unicellular one cell
  • Mostly heterotrophic cannot make own food

3
Two Kingdoms of Bacteria
(Based on differences in structure of DNA, cell
wall and cell membrane)
Eubacteria and Archaebacteria
4
Where are archaebacteria found?
In Extreme Environments
Archae Means Ancient
  • Geysers
  • Nuclear Reactors
  • Volcanoes
  • Ocean Floor Vents

5
Some are anaerobic, which means they can survive
without OXYGEN.
6
  • Eubacteria
  • Eu (True)
  • Live almost everywhere
  • Fresh and salt water
  • Land
  • In Humans

E.coli
7
Most are unicellular (single celled). Few live
in clusters or groups.
8
Most bacteria get their food by eating other
things. They are considered Heterotrophs.
9
Bacteria have cell walls made of peptidoglycan
10
Identification(based on shapes, cell walls, or
movement)
  • Shapes
  • Bacilli rods
  • Cocci round
  • Spirilla spiral

11
BACILLI (RODS)
12
COCCI (ROUND)
13
SPIRILLI (SPIRAL)
14
A
  • Prefixes
  • Diplo 2 (pairs)
  • Strepto chain
  • Staphylo clumps

B
C
15
Bacilli
Spirilli
Cocci
16
Diplobaccillus
17
Streptococcus
Diplobacillus
18
More Identification
  • Gram Staining is used to identify bacteria with
    extra membranes. These bacteria are more
    resistant to damage.
  • Gram stain purple
  • Gram (extra membrane) stain red

19
Even More Identification
  • MOVEMENT
  • Flagella
  • Glide on slime
  • Wiggle
  • None

20
How do bacteria move?
Some have a flagellum.
21
Others develop endospores and float through the
air.
22
Roles
  • Symbiotic relationship E. coli in the
    intestines aid in digestion in exchange for food
    and a warm home.

23
Recycle Chemicals
  • Decomposers
  • Oil-eating bacteria
  • Break-down raw sewage
  • Nitrogen-fixation change nitrogen to a form
    that producers can use to make protein.

24
Many fermented foods are produced with the help
of bacteria.
  • Cheese
  • Buttermilk
  • Sour cream
  • Vinegar
  • Pickles
  • Sauerkraut
  • Sourdough bread

25
Pathogen Disease-causing Agent
  • Bacteria cause disease in 2 ways
  • Damage cells
  • Release toxins (poisons)

Anthrax
Acne
26
Some bacteria cause diseases like
27
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis
28
Strep Throat Streptococcus
Food Poisoning Bacillus cereus
29
Diarrhea, urinary tract infections Escherichia
coli
30
BACTERIAL DISEASES
Disease Transmission Description of Illness
Streptococcus infections Direct contact with saliva or nasal discharge Fever, white patches on tonsils
Diphtheria Sneezing or coughing Sore throat, fever, swollen glands
Anthrax Inhalation of spores Fever, severe difficulty in breathing
Tuberculosis Inhalation Fever, difficulty in breathing
Botulism Contaminated food Blurred vision, difficulty in swallowing, muscle weakness
31
Bacteria reproduce through mitosis. In bacteria
it is called binary fission.
32
Binary fission is the same thing as mitosis.
Binary fission is asexual reproduction sexual
reproduction
or
33
Bacteria can also swap or pass on their genetic
information without dividing. This is called
Conjugation
34
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35
Control
  • Antibiotics medicines that stop bacterial growth
  • Sterilization heat or disinfectant
  • Cook food all the way

36
When bacteria are grown in a lab, it is called a
Culture
37
Petri dish
Colony
Agar
38
Control
39
Zone of Inhibition
  1. 1
  2. 4

40
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41
Virus
Latin for poison
A virus is a particle that can only be seen with
an electron microscope.
42
  • Viruses are not cells and are not made-up of
    cells. They dont
  • Contain a nucleus or cytoplasm
  • Eat
  • Grow
  • Carry on respiration
  • Or perform other biological functions

43
A virus is surrounded by a capsid (protein coat)
which determines the shape of the virus.
The capsid contains nucleic acids (either DNA or
RNA).
Tail fibers for attachment to host cell.
44
  • Viruses are classified by
  • type of host cell
  • presence of DNA or RNA (retroviruses)
  • shape

Binal
Polyhedral
Filo
45
VIRAL REPLICATION
  • Viruses replicate in one of two ways
  • Lytic
  • Lysogenic

46
LYTIC CYCLE
Virus attaches to host cell.
Virus injects its DNA
Cell lyses (breaks apart) and new viruses are
released
Virus DNA commands host cell to make new viral
parts
New viral parts assembled
47
LYSOGENIC CYCLE
http//www.howstuffworks.com/virus-human2.htm
48
LYSOGENIC CYCLE
  • Does not begin immediately
  • Viral DNA (called a prophage) attaches to the
    host cells chromosomes lies dormant.
  • Environmental stimulus sends viral DNA into lytic
    cycle.

49
VIRAL DISEASES
Disease Transmission Symptoms
AIDS/HIV Sexual contact contaminated blood or needles Immune system failure fatal
Common Cold Inhalation, direct contact Sinus congestion, muscle aches, cough, fever
Smallpox Inhalation Blisters, lesions, fever, blindness, scars often fatal
Influenza (Flu) Inhalation Headache, muscle ache, sore throat, cough, fatigue, fever, chills
Warts Direct contact Lumps on skin or mucus membranes
50
VIRUS
Ebola
51
VIRUS
Herpes
52
VIRUS
Herpes simplex Virus Type 1
53
VIRUS
54
VIRUS
Herpes zoster Shingles Chicken Pox Virus
55
HIV
VIRUS
AIDS
56
Flu
VIRUS
Influenza
57
VIRUS
Smallpox
58
VIRUS
Chicken Pox
Pink Eye
59
VIRUS
Warts
60
Are they living or nonliving?
LIVING NONLIVING
  • Do not reproduce
  • Need a HOST in order to survive
  • No nucleus
  • Do not grow
  • Do not make energy
  • Contain DNA/RNA
  • Replicate
  • Made of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
  • Undergo mutations

61
Can antibiotics be used to cure an illness caused
by a virus?
62
Are there any treatments?
63
Most viruses have NO cure (Influenza, HIV),
but some viruses like Small- pox have vaccines.
Vaccines contain a weakened or killed virus that
provides immunity to the disease.
64
Immune System
What is the main function? This system fights
infectious diseases.
65
Also, identify non-self cells (dont belong in
your body) from self cells (belong in your
body).
66
GERM THEORY
  • There is a relationship between
  • microorganisms and diseases.

Pasteur
Koch
Lister
67
How are diseases transmitted?
direct contact
animal bites
food
indirect contact
68
What is your first line of defense?
skin
  • Keep out pathogens
  • Nonspecific (does not discriminate)

sweat
mucus
tears
69
Your Second Line of Defense
  • The Inflammatory Response
  • Reaction to tissue damage
  • Nonspecific
  • Redness and swelling

70
THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE
  • The Immune Response
  • Specific
  • Triggered by antigens
  • Two parts
  • Humoral Immunity (B-cells)
  • Cell-mediated Immunity (T-cells)

71
HUMORAL IMMUNITY
  • Fights pathogens in body fluids.
  • B-cells produce antibodies that mark antigens for
    destruction.

72
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
  • T-cells directly attack harmful cells.
  • Harmful cells include cancerous, infected or
    transplanted cells.

73
There are different kinds of T-cells Killer
Helper Suppressor
74
Killer T-cells kill harmful cells.
75
Helper T-cells call in more Killer T-cells
and tell the B-cells when to make antibodies.
76
The Suppressor T-cells tell the B-cells to stop
making antibodies.
77
ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
  • Memory T and B cells remember previous antigens.
  • If the same antigen enters the body again, the
    memory T and B cells trigger a secondary
    response.

78
  • http//www.harbinson.fslife.co.uk/e-coli.jpg

http//www.okstate.edu/OSU_Ag/fapc/fsw/bacteria.jp
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