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Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination


UNIT 4: Social Challenges Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination January 16, 2012 Diversity Diversity The human world is a very diverse one, made up of people of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination

Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
UNIT 4 Social Challenges
  • January 16, 2012

  • Diversity
  • The human world is a very diverse one, made up of
    people of both genders who come from a variety of
    races, social and religious backgrounds who
    communicate in an equally wide variety of
    language and have differing abilities.
    Unfortunately, along with this diversity, the
    world also experiences varying degrees of
    understanding and acceptance of these
  • Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination
  • Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination are a
    few of the negative effects of diversity. The
    chart on the next slide provides definitions for
    these terms.

(No Transcript)
  • STEREOTYPE - a generalization, frequently false
    or over simplified, that is used to describe a
    group, without respect to individual differences.
  • PREJUDICE - derived from a word meaning to
    "prejudge". It is a set of negative opinions or
    attitudes about a group or individuals in that
    group that has no basis in fact.

  • DISCRIMINATION - unfair treatment of people based
    on race, ethnicity, nationality, language, faith,
    gender or disability.
  • DIRECT DISCRIMINATION any actions, standards or
    policies that are clearly discriminatory on their
    face and that are meant to bring about the
    inequitable treatment of certain groups.
  • SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION any organizational
    policies or practices that create or continue
    inequitable treatment of certain groups.

Prejudice as Learned
  • Social scientists agree that prejudice is
    something that is learned, either through the
    process of socialization or through experience
    (or a lack of experience).
  • A variety of social scientists have developed
    theories to explain prejudice.

Authoritarian Personality Theory
  • In 1950, Theodor Adorno developed The
    Authoritarian Personality Theory, which made the
    compelling argument that certain family
    conditions, particularly the experience of
    excessively harsh and moralistic parenting,
    produces an outlook on life which is overly
    deferential towards authority, socially
    conservative, and hostile towards minorities or
    other non-dominant groups.

Social Dominance Theory
  • The Social Dominance Theory was conceived in 1990
    by psychologists Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto.
    This theory explains prejudice by suggesting that
    oppressive hierarchies exist in all societies.
    These hierarchies are based on age, gender, and
    on additional social criteria like nationality or

Allports Scale of Prejudice and Discrimination
  • In 1954, Gordon Allport developed a scale to
    measure prejudice and discrimination.
  • Antilocution - includes verbal prejudice, things
    like jokes or hate speech.
  • Avoidance - is when members of one group are
    ostracized by member of another.
  • Discrimination - is when the majority group is
    activily trying to harm the minority group via
    discrimination (denial of education and jobs).
    Here prejudice has been put into action.
  • Physical Attack - physical harm, including
    vandalism and violence, is carried out against
    the minority group. Physical harm is intended.
  • Extermination - The majority group attempts the
    extermination of the minority group.

Consequences of Discrimination
  • Obviously, discrimination can have an adverse
    affect on self-esteem. Over the longer term,
    discrimination can also cause a chain reaction of
    disadvantages. And finally, a cycle of
    discrimination is put in place where
    discrimination marginalizes a certain group. The
    majority group may be blind to the real causes of
    this marginalization and may point to it as a
    reinforcement of an existing stereotype. This
    stereotype breeds more discrimination which
    breeds more marginalization and so on

Canadian Human Rights Commission
  • The CHRC was created by the Canadian government
    in 1977 to investigate and hear complaints about
    incidences of discrimination.
  • It also ensures that employers provide equal
    opportunities for employees from four designated
    groups women, Aboriginal people, the disabled,
    and visible minorities.
  • The CHRC also prepares reports on the issue of
    discrimination, and distributes educational
    information to the public and employers.

  • Whether or not prejudice can be unlearned is a
    question that many social scientists have tried
    to answer.
  • Most modern social scientists believe that it
    can. How? Through education about the negative
    effects of prejudice in all of its forms,
    exposure to different groups and individuals and
    legal protection for those who are most at risk.

Canadas Diversity
UNIT 4 Social Challenges
  • January 16, 2012

Canada as a Microcosm of the World
  • Canadas multicultural diversity is what
    distinguishes the country from the rest of the
    world. The variety of cultural, ethnic and
    linguistic backgrounds of Canadas 33 million
    people is found no where else on earth. Every
    year roughly 200,000 immigrants choose Canada as
    their new home, further broadening diversity.

  • Canada has become a world leader in tackling the
    issues of diversity and social change. Canada,
    for instance, is a member of the International
    Network on Cultural Policy and chairs its Working
    Group on Cultural Diversity and Globalization.
    Canada was the first country in the world to
    adopt a multicultural policy. Many nations
    followed our lead and can boast that they have
    put these policies in place. And frequently
    Canada is called upon to advise other nations in
    handling tensions related to diversity.

  • Diversity has been part of Canadas makeup since
    its earliest days. When the first settlers
    arrived, there were over 50 distinct aboriginal
    groups already living in Canada. And our first
    laws enshrined the concept of bilingualism.

Social Sciences and Diversity
  • Social scientists focus their studies of
    diversity on several issues.
  • They want to know
  • What is the effect of diversity on immigrants and
    other minorities?
  • What is the effect of diversity on Canadian
    society as a whole?
  • What is the relationship between multiculturalism
    and globalization?

What is the effect of diversity on immigrants
and other minorities?
  • Immigrants and other minorities report a range of
    effects that diversity has had on their lives.

  • For Aboriginal Canadians, diversity in the form
    of European settlers led to threats against their
    culture and their traditional way of life. Some
    aboriginals would argue that they can never truly
    recover everything that they have lost. In fact,
    discussions on diversity frequently centre on the
    experience of immigrants and leave out the
    experiences of Canadas Native peoples.

  • Other ethnic minorities, particularly visible
    minorities, report having experienced
    discrimination and further report varying degrees
    of acceptance into the Canadian community. In a
    more subtle way, diversity can also encourage the
    homogenization of cultures and for some ethnic
    communities, a clash between the values of the
    old world and those of the new world.

  • In a more positive vein, Canadas embracing of
    diversity has led to increased funding that helps
    protect cultures and lifestyles at risk.
    Multicultural organizations and festivals are
    thriving in Canada. Diversity has helped improve
    the understanding and tolerance of certain
    traditionally hostile cultures toward one
    another. Social scientists point to Canada as
    proof that it is possible for all people of the
    world to live together in harmony and peace.

What is the effect of diversity on Canadian
  • Diversity has had several interesting effects on
  • Many believe that our cultural diversity gives us
    a tolerance and understanding of other cultures
    that is lacking in other, less diverse nations.
    This has placed us on the world stage as a nation
    renowned for its peacekeeping and negotiating

  • Within Canada, our experiences with ethnic
    diversity have led us to accept, and even
    encourage, diversity in other areas. For
    instance, our concept of diversity has progressed
    beyond race and ethnicity to include gender,
    sexual orientation, and a range of abilities and

  • Diversity has also been a major advantage in
    providing Canada with access to global markets.
  • This does not mean that there have not been
    problems related to diversity. In the same CRIC
    study that is referenced above, 58 of people
    expressed concern that immigrants loyalty to
    Canada could suffer if they maintained too strong
    an attachment to their countries of origin.

  • There is also a concern with the concept of
    hyphenated Canadians. Are they Canadians first or
    Irish, Chinese or African first? And does the
    answer really matter?
  • Intolerance, and even racism, still exists but
    Canada has enacted a broad series of laws and
    policies to protect and enhance diversity.

  • At the federal level, these include the Canadian
    Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Canadian
    Human Rights Act, the Employment Equity Act, the
    Official Languages Act, the Pay Equity Act, and
    the Multiculturalism Act.
  • Provinces and territories also have laws, human
    rights commissions, and programs that promote
  • Finally, Canada reinforces its commitment to
    diversity as a signatory to international
    conventions including, for example, the Universal
    Declaration of Human Rights and the International
    Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
  • The benefit for Canada is that all of these laws
    and policies benefit and protect all Canadians.

What is the relationship between diversity and
  • Some social scientists argue that globalization
    degrades the quality and diversity of world
    culture. Others argue that economic globalization
    enhances culture by fostering wealth in
    developing nations, freeing them from the
    struggle to survive, and allowing the local
    resources to further develop their cultures.