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INCLUSION Universal Design

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Differentiated Instruction. Universal Design for Learning. Content. what the student needs to learn or how the student will get access to the information – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INCLUSION Universal Design


1
(No Transcript)
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INCLUSIONUniversal Design Differentiated
Instruction
3
The Challenge
  • Large volume of information
  • Same amount of instructional time
  • High expectations for student achievement
  • Greater cultural and academic diversity among
    students
  • Value of content is questioned
  • Unrealistic planning expectations
  • Learning is difficult for many students

4
  • Addressing the realities of diverse classrooms
  • Diverse in
  • Student ability
  • Student language
  • Student culture
  • Student preferences

5
Differentiating Instruction
  • To differentiate instruction is to
  • Recognize students varying background knowledge,
    readiness, language, preferences in learning
    interests, and to react responsively
  • Process to teaching and learning for students of
    differing abilities in the same class
  • Intent is to maximize each students growth and
    individual success by meeting each student where
    he/she is and assisting in the learning process

6
Principles of Effective Curriculum Design
  • Big Ideas
  • Conspicuous Strategies
  • Mediated Scaffolding
  • Strategic Integration
  • Judicious Review
  • Primed Background Knowledge

7
Differentiated Instruction v. UDL
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Universal Design for Learning
  • Content
  • what the student needs to learn or how the
    student will get access to the information
  • Process
  • activities in which the student engages in order
    to make sense of or master the content
  • Product
  • products students create to demonstrate mastery
    of knowledge/skill
  • Representation
  • Provide multiple, flexible methods of
    presentation
  • Expression
  • Provide multiple, flexible methods of expression
  • Engagement
  • Provide multiple, flexible methods for engagement

8
Differentiating Instruction
9
Content
  • 1. Differentiating the Content/Topic
  • Content can be described as the knowledge, skills
    and attitudes we want children to learn.
  • Differentiating content requires that students
    are pre-tested to identify the range of student
    knowledge/skills related to the content
  • Align tasks objectives to learning goals
  • Instruction is concept focused principle driven
  • Vary content
  • Direct instruction
  • Application of concepts to problem solving
  • Permit students to accelerate their rate of
    progress. They can work ahead independently on
    some projects, i.e. they cover the content faster
    than their peers.

10
Differentiating Content
  • Using reading materials at varying readability
    levels
  • Putting text materials on tape
  • Using spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness
    levels of students
  • Presenting ideas through both auditory and visual
    means
  • Using reading buddies and
  • Meeting with small groups to re-teach an idea or
    skill for struggling learners, or to extend the
    thinking or skills of advanced learners.

11
Process
  • 2. Differentiating the Process/Activities
  • Varying learning activities or strategies to
    provide appropriate methods for students to
    explore the concepts. It is important to give
    students alternative paths to manipulate the
    ideas embedded within the concept.
  • For example students may use graphic organizers,
    maps, diagrams or charts to display their
    comprehension of concepts covered. Varying the
    complexity of the graphic organizer can
    facilitate differing levels for students of
    differing ability.

12
Differentiating Process
  • Using tiered activities through which all
    learners work with the same important
    understandings and skills, but proceed with
    different levels of support, challenge, or
    complexity
  • Providing interest centers that encourage
    students to explore subsets of the class topic of
    particular interest to them
  • Developing personal agendas (task lists written
    by the teacher and containing both in-common work
    for the whole class and work that addresses
    individual needs of learners) to be completed
    either during specified agenda time or as
    students complete other work early
  • Offering manipulatives or other hands-on supports
    for students who need them and
  • Varying the length of time a student may take to
    complete a task in order to provide additional
    support for a struggling learner or to encourage
    an advanced learner to pursue a topic in greater
    depth.

13
Product
  • Differentiating the Product
  • Varying the complexity of the product that
    students create to demonstrate mastery of the
    concepts.
  • Students working below grade level may have
    reduced performance expectations, while students
    above grade level may be asked to produce work
    that requires more complex or more advanced
    thinking.
  • Sometimes it is motivating for students to be
    offered choice of product.

14
Differentiating Products
  • Giving students options of how to express
    required learning (e.g., create a puppet show,
    write a letter, or develop a mural with labels)
  • Using rubrics that match and extend students'
    varied skills levels
  • Allowing students to work alone or in small
    groups on their products and
  • Encouraging students to create their own product
    assignments as long as the assignments contain
    required elements.

15
Differentiating the Learning Environment
  • Making sure there are places in the room to work
    quietly and without distraction, as well as
    places that invite student collaboration
  • Providing materials that reflect a variety of
    cultures and home settings
  • Setting out clear guidelines for independent work
    that matches individual needs
  • Developing routines that allow students to get
    help when teachers are busy with other students
    and cannot help them immediately and

16
Universal Design for Learning
  • Essential for some, good for all

17
Representation
  • Provide multiple examples
  • Highlight critical features
  • Provide multiple media formats
  • Support background context

18
Representation
  • Emphasize use of digital formats to provide
    flexibilty more flexible than traditional
    formats (speech, printed text printed images)
  • Makes it feasible to modify customize formats
    to needs of the student
  • Technology Resources

19
Expression
  • Provide opportunities to practice with supports
  • Provide ongoing, relevant feedback
  • Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating
    skills

20
Engagement
  • Offer choices of content and tools
  • Offer adjustable levels of challenge
  • Offer choices of rewards
  • Offer choices of learning contexts

21
Manipulating Academic Tasks
  • Darch Kameenui, 200

22
Instructional Classroom Management
  • The nature, structure, and demands of a task can
    set the stage for student success and
    participation or failure and potentially problem
    behavior
  • What can I do to change task presentation to make
    the student more likely to engage in the
    instructional task and less likely to avoid
    task/misbehave
  • Depending on challenge of task, may also need to
    alter/increase amount of reinforcement provided
    for some students

23
Task Dimensions of Instruction
  • Task History
  • Task Response form
  • Task Modality
  • Task Complexity
  • Task Schedule
  • Task Variation

24
Manipulating Task Dimensions
  • We can manipulate aspects of tasks and/or the way
    we seek student responses to increase the chances
    that students will participate and be successful
    with the task
  • Likelihood of Failure with Task
  • Decreased Increased
  • (task made easier)
    (task made more difficult)
  • Decreased Increased
  • Likelihood of Problem Behavior/Refusal

25
Task History
  • Status of the task and extent that the task has
    been taught before and the likelihood that the
    learner will be familiar with it
  • New v. familiar tasks
  • Likelihood of Failure with Task
  • Decreased (easier task) (more difficult)
    Increased
  • ? ? (more familiar/reviewed items)
    (newer material)
  • Decreased Increased
  • Likelihood of Problem Behavior/Refusal

26
Task Response Form
  • The manner in which students are required to
    respond to the task or teacher
  • Yes/No
  • Choice
  • Production

27
Task Modality
  • The mode of response required of the student
  • Oral
  • Motor
  • Written

28
Task Complexity
  • The extent to which a task involves multiple
    steps, new concepts, unfamiliar procedures and so
    on
  • Easy v. Hard

29
Task Schedule
  • The amount of time allocated to complete a task
  • Abbreviated v. Extended

30
Task Variation
  • The sequence in which easy or hard tasks are
    sequenced within a lesson
  • Varied v. Unvaried

31
Task Dimensions
  • Task History
  • New v. familiar tasks
  • Task Response form
  • Yes or No/Choice/Production
  • Task Modality
  • oral/motor/written
  • Task Complexity
  • Easy v Difficult
  • Task Schedule
  • Abbreviated v. extended
  • Variation
  • Varied v unvaried

32
Critical Concepts of SPED
Technology
33

Special Education Critical Concepts
Data-Based Decision Making
Individualization
Leadership Advocacy
Collaboration Teaming
Home
School
A-B-C
Inclusion
Community
Student Independence
Science Values
Scaffolding
34
Features of My Philosophy of Special Education
35
PragmatistFocus on what we can Change
  • We cannot prescribe medication
  • We cannot change the students previous
    experiences
  • We often cannot change the parenting practices in
    the home
  • Some venting is good, but too often it takes over
    leading to less productive meetings

36
Course Review
  • What will you take away from this course?
  • How has your philosophy of SPED changed in the
    last 4 weeks?
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